Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology

The Journal of Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health

4 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.395

CiteScore 2016: 1.25

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.404
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.721

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 63, Issue 2


Conflict Between Work and Family Roles and Satisfaction among Nurses in Different Shift Systems in Croatia: a Questionnaire Survey

Ana Šimunić / Ljiljana Gregov
Published Online: 2012-06-21 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/10004-1254-63-2012-2159

Conflict Between Work and Family Roles and Satisfaction among Nurses in Different Shift Systems in Croatia: a Questionnaire Survey

The objective of this study was to examine the perception of conflict between work and family roles and job, family, and life satisfaction among nurses in Croatia. One hundred and twenty-nine nurses (married mothers) working in hospitals in Zadar, Šibenik, and Split were divided in four groups according to their worktime schedule. The participants completed a survey, which included a set of sociodemographic-type questions, questions about the level and allocation of family responsibilities between spouses, and scales measuring the perceived negative effects of worktime, psychological demands of the work, work-family conflict, and semantic differential scales for measuring the affective and cognitive-evaluative component of job, family, and life satisfaction. This was the first study in Croatia to deal with work-family conflict among nurses or workers with different shift systems.

The results of this study indicate that nurses working morning shifts only experienced less conflict between work and family than other groups of nurses, who worked the morning, afternoon, and the night shift. The cognitive-evaluative component of job satisfaction was the highest among morning shift nurses and the lowest in nurses who worked 12-hour shifts, while the affective component of life satisfaction was the lowest in nurses working irregular and backward rotated shifts. These results confirm that shiftwork makes the work-family role conflict even worse. They also support the view that the type of shift rotation matters.

Sukob radnih i obiteljskih uloga i zadovoljstva u medicinskih sestara u Hrvatskoj s različitim sustavima smjenskoga rada

Cilj je ovoga istraživanja bio ispitati percepciju sukoba između radnih i obiteljskih uloga i radno, obiteljsko i životno zadovoljstvo kod medicinskih sestara s obzirom na različite vrste organizacije radnoga vremena. 129 udatih medicinskih sestara majki koje rade u bolnicama u Zadru, Šibeniku i Splitu podijeljeno je u 4 skupine s obzirom na vrstu organizacije radnoga vremena. Sudionice su ispunile upitnik koji je uključivao set pitanja sociodemografskoga tipa, pitanja o količini i raspodjeli obiteljskih odgovornosti među supružnicima i skale koje mjere percipirane negativne efekte radnoga vremena, psihološke zahtjeve posla, sukob između radne i obiteljske uloge te skale semantičkoga diferencijala za mjerenje afektivne i kognitivnoevaluativne komponente radnog i obiteljskog zadovoljstva i života općenito. Ovo je prvo istraživanje provedeno u Hrvatskoj u kojem je ispitivan sukob radne i obiteljske uloge kod medicinskih sestara ili općenito radnika s različitim sustavima smjenskoga rada.

Rezultati pokazuju da sestre koje rade u stalnim jutarnjim smjenama doživljavaju manje sukoba zbog ometajućih utjecaja rada na obitelj od grupe medicinskih sestara koje su radile u tri smjene (u koje je uključena noćna smjena). Kognitivno-evaluativna komponenta zadovoljstva poslom bila je najviša kod medicinskih sestara s jutarnjim smjenama, a najniža kod onih koje su radile u 12-satnim smjenama. Afektivna komponenta zadovoljstva životom bila je najniža kod medicinskih sestara koje su radile u iregularnim i unatrag rotiranim smjenama. Ovi su rezultati dodatan pokazatelj različitih i više ili manje negativnih efekata smjenskoga rada na sukob između radnih i obiteljskih uloga te dodatno upozoravaju na važnost uzimanja u obzir vrste rotacije smjena.

Keywords: family satisfaction; job satisfaction; life satisfaction; nursing; shiftwork; work-family conflict

Keywords: smjenski rad; sukob radne i obiteljske uloge; zadovoljstvo obiteljskim životom; zadovoljstvo poslom; životno zadovoljstvo

  • Yoder JD. Women and Gender: Transforming Psychology. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River (NJ): Prentice Hall; 2002.Google Scholar

  • Gerstel N, Sarkisian N. Sociological perspectives on families and work: the import of gender, class and race. In: Pitt-Catsouphes M, Kossek E, Sweet S, editors. The work and family handbook: multidisciplinary perspectives, methods and approaches. Boston: Lawrence Earlbaum; 2006. p. 237-66.Google Scholar

  • Barnett RC, Shen Y-C. Gender, high- and low-schedule-control housework tasks, and psychological distress: a study of dual-earner couples. J Fam Issues 1997;18:403-28.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lundberg U, Frankenhaeuser M. Stress and workload of men and women in high-ranking positions. J Occup Health Psychol 1999;4:142-51.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Bøggild H, Knutsson A. Shift work, risk factors and cardiovascular disease. Scand J Work Environ Health 1999;25:85-99.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Costa G. The impact of shift and night work on health. Appl Ergon 1996;27:9-16.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • White J, Beswick J. Working long hours. Sheffield: Health and Safety Laboratory; 2003 [displayed 23 April 2012]. Available at http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/hsl_pdf/2003/hsl03-02.pdf

  • Wallace M. Shiftwork case studies. Asia Pac J Hum Resour 1983;21:43-6.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Driscoll TR, Grunstein RR, Rogers NL. A systematic review of the neurobehavioural and physiological effects of shiftwork systems. Sleep Med Rev 2007;11:179-94.PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Härmä M. Shift work among women - a century-old health issue in occupational health. Scand J Work Environ Health 2008;34:1-3.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Karlsson B, Knutsson A, Lindahl B. Is there an association between shift work and having a metabolic syndrome? Results from a population based study of 27485 people. Occup Environ Med 2001;58:747-52.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Rogers AE, Hwang W-T, Scott LD, Aiken LH, Dinges DF. Working hours of hospital staff nurses and patient safety. Health Affairs 2004;23:202-12.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bonnefond A, Härmä M, Hakola T, Sallinen M, Kandolin I, Virkkala J. Interaction of age with shift-related sleep-wakefulness, sleepiness, performance, and social life. Exp Aging Res 2006;32:185-208.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Härmä M, Tenkanen L, Sjöblom T, Alikoski T, Heinsalmi P. Combined effects of shiftwork and life-style on the prevalence of insomnia, sleep deprivation and daytime sleepiness. Scand J Work Environ Health 1998;4:300-7.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kolstad H. Nightshift work and risk of breast cancer and other cancers-a critical review of the epidemiologic evidence. Scand J Work Environ Health 2008;34:5-22.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Samaha E, Lai S, Samaha N, Wyndham J. Psychological, lifestyle and coping contributors to chronic fatique in shift-worker nurses. J Adv Nurs 2007;59:221-32.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Knauth P. Extended work periods. Ind Health 2007;45:125-36.Web of ScienceCrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Frone MR, Russell M, Cooper ML. Antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflicts: testing a model of work-family interface. J Appl Psychol 1992;77:65-75.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Frone MR, Yardley JK, Markel KS. Developing and testing an integrative model of the work-family interface. J Vocat Behav 1997;50:145-67.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Staines GL, Pleck JH. The Impact of Work Schedules on the Family. Ann Arbor (MI): University of Michigan Press; 1983.Google Scholar

  • Fenwick R, Tausig M. Scheduling stress family and health outcomes of shift work and schedule control. Am Behav Sci 2001;44:1179-98.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Tausig M, Fenwick R. Unbinding time: alternative work schedules and work-life balance. J Family Econ Issues 2001;22:101-19.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kinnunen U, Mauno S. Antecedents and outcomes of work family conflict among employed women and men in Finland. Hum Relat 1998;51:157-77.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • MacEwen KE, Barling J. Interrole conflict, family support and marital adjustment of employed mothers: A short-term longitudinal study. J Organ Behav 1988;9:241-50.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hill EJ, Yang C, Hawkins AJ, Ferris M. A cross-cultural test of the work-family interface in 48 countries. J Marriage Fam 2004;66:1300-16.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Voydanoff P. The differential salience of family and community demands and resources for family-to-work conflict and facilitation. J Family Econ Issues 2005;26:395-417.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Jansen NWH, Kant I, Nijhuis FJN, Swaen GMH, Kristensen TS. Impact of worktime arrangements on work-home interference among Dutch employees. Scand J Work Environ Health 2004;30:139-48.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hakola T, Härmä M. Evaluation of a fast forward rotating shift schedule in the steel industry with a special focus on ageing and sleep. J Hum Ergol 2003;30:315-19.Google Scholar

  • Hakola T, Paukkonen M, Pohjonen T. Less quick returns - greater well-being. Ind Health 2010;48:390-4.PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Hårmä M, Tarja H, Irja K, Mikael S, Jussi V, Anne B, Pertti M. A controlled intervention study on the effects of a very rapidly forward rotating shift system on sleep-wakefulness and well-being among young and elderly shift workers. Int J Psychophysiol 2006;59:70-9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Viitasalo K, Kuosma E, Laitinen J, Hårmä M. Effects of shift rotation and the flexibility of a shift system on daytime alertness and cardiovascular risk factors. Scand J Work Environ Health 2008;34:198-205.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Grosswald B. Shift work and negative work-to-family spillover. J Sociol Soc Welf 2003 [displayed 23 April 2012]. Available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0CYZ/is_4_30/ai_111933182/

  • van Amelsvoort LG, Jansen NWH, Swaen GMH, van der Brandt PA, Kant I. Direction of shift rotation among three-shift workers in relation to psychological health and work-family conflict. Scand J Work Environ Health 2004;30:149-56.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Barnett RC, Gareis KC, Brennan RT. Wives' shift work schedules and husbands' and wives' well-being in dual earner couples with children. J Fam Issues 1992;29:396-422.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Yildirim D, Aycan Z. Nurses' work demands and work-family conflict: A questionnaire survey. Int J Nurs Stud 2008;45:1366-78.PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • European NEXT-Study [displayed 23 April 2012]. Available at http://www.next.uni-wuppertal.de/EN/index.php?articles-and-reports

  • Ahasan R, Mohiuddin G, Khaleque A. Psychosocial implications of shift work: a case study. Work Study 2002;51:116-20.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Netemeyer RG, Boles JS, McMurrian R. Development and validation of work-family conflict scales and family-work conflict scales. J Appl Psychol 1996;81:400-10.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gregov Lj. Nametnuti ritam rada kao stresor [Paced work rhythm as a stressor; in Croatian]. [Master thesis]. Zagreb: Faculty of Phylosophy, University in Zagreb; 1994.Google Scholar

  • Parkes KR. Shift work and age as interactive predictors of body mass index among offshore workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 2002;28:64-71.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Costa G. Factors influencing health of workers and tolerance to shift work. Theor Issues Ergon Sci 2003;4:263-88.Google Scholar

  • Mitchell RJ, Williamson AM. Evaluation of an 8 hour versus a 12 hour shift roster on employees at a power station. Appl Ergon 2000;31:83-9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Mott PE, Mann FC, McLoughlin Q, Warwick DP. Shift work: The social, psychological, and physical consequences. Ann Arbor (MI): University of Michigan Press; 1965.Google Scholar

  • Šimunić A, Rupić L, Gregov Lj, Šimić N. Organizacija smjenskog rada, zadovoljstvo poslom i zdravstveni status kod medicinskih sestara [Shift work organization, job satisfaction, and health status in nurses; in Croatian]. In: Vulić-Prtorić A, Ćubela Adorić V, Proroković A, Sorić I, Valerjev P, editors. Book of Abstracts of the XVI. Psychology Days in Zadar; 29-31 May 2008; Zadar, Croatia. Zadar: Department of Psychology, University in Zadar; 2008. p. 109.Google Scholar

  • Carlson D, Kacmar L. Work-family conflict in the organization: do life role values make a difference? J Manage 2000;26:1031-54.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2012-06-21

Published in Print: 2012-06-01

Citation Information: Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Volume 63, Issue 2, Pages 189–197, ISSN (Print) 0004-1254, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/10004-1254-63-2012-2159.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Dag Ingvar Jacobsen and Elin M. Fjeldbraaten
Human Resource Management, 2017
Mozhdeh Tahghighi, Clare S. Rees, Janie A. Brown, Lauren J. Breen, and Desley Hegney
Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2017, Volume 73, Number 9, Page 2065
Ruth Harris, Sarah Sims, Jenny Parr, and Nigel Davies
International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2015, Volume 52, Number 2, Page 605
Claudia C. Ma, Michael E. Andrew, Desta Fekedulegn, Ja K. Gu, Tara A. Hartley, Luenda E. Charles, John M. Violanti, and Cecil M. Burchfiel
Safety and Health at Work, 2015, Volume 6, Number 1, Page 25
Shu-Yu TAI, Pei-Chen LIN, Yao-Mei CHEN, Hsin-Chia HUNG, Chih-Hong PAN, Shung-Mei PAN, Chung-Yin LEE, Chia-Tsuan HUANG, and Ming-Tsang WU
Industrial Health, 2014, Volume 52, Number 4, Page 296
Mitsuhiro Matsumoto, Bumsuk Lee, Fusae Tozato, Kazuko Gennai, and Yasufumi Shiihara
SANGYO EISEIGAKU ZASSHI, 2014, Volume 56, Number 3, Page 67

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in