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Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology

The Journal of Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health

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Volume 64, Issue 1


Exposure to Urban Air Pollution and Bone Health in Clinically Healthy Six-year-old Children

Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas
  • The Center for Structural and Functional Neurosciences, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Antonieta Mora-Tiscareño / Maricela Francolira / Ricardo Torres-Jardón / Bernardo Peña-Cruz / Carolina Palacios-López / Hongtu Zhu
  • Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico Biostatistics, University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Linglong Kong
  • Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico Biostatistics, University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Nicolás Mendoza-Mendoza / Hortencia Montesinoscorrea / Lina Romero / Gildardo Valencia-Salazar / Michael Kavanaugh
  • The Center for Structural and Functional Neurosciences, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Silvestre Frenk
Published Online: 2013-03-26 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/10004-1254-64-2013-2219

Air pollution induces systemic inflammation, as well as respiratory, myocardial and brain inflammation in children. Peak bone mass is influenced by environmental factors. We tested the hypothesis that six-year-olds with lifetime exposures to urban air pollution will have alterations in inflammatory markers and bone mineral density (BMD) as opposed to low-polluted city residents when matched for BMI, breast feeding history, skin phototype, age, sex and socioeconomic status. This pilot study included 20 children from Mexico City (MC) (6.17 years ± 0.63 years) and 15 controls (6.27 years ± 0.76 years). We performed full paediatric examinations, a history of outdoor exposures, seven-day dietary recalls, serum inflammatory markers and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Children in MC had significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 (p=0.001), marked reductions in total blood neutrophils (p= 0.0002) and an increase in monocytes (p=0.005). MC children also had an insufficient Vitamin D intake and spent less time outdoors than controls (p<0.001) in an environment characterized by decreased UV light, with ozone and fine particulates concentrations above standard values. There were no significant differences between the cohorts in DXA Z scores. The impact of systemic inflammation, vitamin D insufficiency, air pollution, urban violence and poverty may have long-term bone detrimental outcomes in exposed paediatric populations as they grow older, increasing the risk of low bone mass and osteoporosis. The selection of reference populations for DXA must take into account air pollution exposures.

Keywords : DXA; particulate matter; systemic inflammation; UV light; vitamin D insufficiency

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About the article

Published Online: 2013-03-26

Published in Print: 2013-03-01

Citation Information: Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Volume 64, Issue 1, Pages 23–34, ISSN (Print) 0004-1254, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/10004-1254-64-2013-2219.

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