1. Carmella SG, Hecht SS, Tso TC, Hoffmann D. Roles of tobacco cellulose, sugars and chlorogenic acid as precursors to catechol in cigarette smoke. J Agric Food Chem 1984;32:267-73. [Crossref]
2. Schmeltz I, Wenger A, Hoffmann D, Tso TC. Chemical studies on tobacco smoke. 53. Use of radioactive tobacco isolates for studying the formation of smoke components. J Agric Food Chem 1978;26:234-9. [Crossref]
4. Czogała J, Goniewicz MŁ. Carbon monoxide levels in main and side stream smoke from cigarettes of selected brands and estimation of active and pasive smokers exposure to this compound. Ann Pol Chem Soc 2003;2:316-20.
6. US Federal Trade Commission. “Tar”, Nicotine, and Carbon Monoxide of the Smoke of 1294 Varieties of Domestic Cigarettes for the Year 1998. Washington (DC): US Federal Trade Commission; 2000.
7. Stratton K, Shetty P, Wallace R, Bondurant S, editors. Clearing the Smoke. Assessing the Science Base for Tobacco Harm Reduction. Washington (DC): National Academy Press; 2001.
8. Sorhaug S, Steinshamn S, Nilsen OG, Waldum HL. Chronic inhalation of carbon monoxide: Effect on the respiratory and cardiovascular system at doses corresponding to tobacco smoking. Toxicology 2006;228:280-90. [PubMed] [Crossref]
9. Zakon o duvanu Republike Srbije [Tobacco Act of the Republic of Serbia, in Serbian]. Sl. glasnik RS, br 101⁄2005.
10. Zakon o duvanu Republike Srbije [Tobacco Act of the Republic of Serbia, in Serbian]. Sl. glasnik RS, br 90⁄2007.
11. Cvetković N, Adnadjević B, Nikolić M. Carbon monoxide elimination from tobacco smoke. In: CORESTA Congress 2000; 15-19 Oct 2000; Lisbon, Portugal. Inf Bull CORESTA 2000. Paper STPOST 11. p. 214.
12. Griest WH, Guerin MR. Influence of tobacco type on smoke composition. Rec Adv Tob Sci 1977;3:121-44.
13. Robertson C. The design and engineering of a cigarette on Regulation Tobacco Products. WHO Conference: Advancing Knowledge on Regulating Tobacco Products; 9-11 Feb 2000; Oslo, Norway .
14. Halter HM, Ito TI. Effect of tobacco reconstitution and expansion processes on smoke composition. Rec Adv Tob Sci 1978;4:113-32.
15. Rathkamp G, Tso TC, Hoffmann D. Chemical studies on tobacco smoke. XX. Smoke analyses of cigarettes made from bright tobaccos differing in variety and stalk position. Beitr Tabakforsch 1973;7:179-89.
16. Calafat MA, Polzin MG, Saylor J, Ashley LD, Watson CH. Determination of tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide yield in the mainstream smoke of selected international cigarettes. Tob Control 2004;13:45-51. [Crossref]
17. Theophilus EH, Pence DH, Meckley DR, Higuchi MA, Bombick BR, Borgerding MF, Ayres PH, Swauger JE. Toxicological evaluation of expanded shredded tobacco stems. Food Chem Toxicol 2004;42:631-9. [Crossref] [PubMed]
18. Rodgman A, Perfetti TA. The Chemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke. Boca Raton, London, New York: CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group; 2009.
19. Brunnemann KD, Hoffmann D. Chemical studies on tobacco smoke. XXIV. A quantitative method for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in cigarette and cigar smoke. J Chromat Sci 1974;12:70-5. [Crossref]
20. Watanabe M, Kobashi Y. Analytical methods for chemical components in tobacco smoke. I. Determination of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in cigarette smoke by gas chromatography. Cent Res Inst Japan Monopoly Corp 1965;107:177-80.
21. Williams TB, Belk CW. An infrared method for the determination of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide levels in cigarette smoke. Beitr Tabakforsch 1972;6:210-5.
22. Wang R, Han F, Yang S, Hou W. The Methods in Analyzing the Chemical Quality of Tobacco. The Henan Press of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou, 1990.
23. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 14th ed. Arlington (VA): AOAC; 1997.
24. International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO Standard 3402:1999. Tobacco and tobacco products - Atmosphere for conditioning and testing.
25. International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO Standard 3308:2000. Routine analytical cigarette-smoking machine - Definitions and standard conditions.
26. International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO Standard 8454:2007. Cigarettes - determination of carbon monoxide in the vapour phase of cigarette smoke - NDIR method.
27. International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO Standard 6565:2002. Tobacco and tobacco products - Draw resistance of cigarettes and pressure drop of filter rods - Standard conditions and measurement.
28. Kurtović M, Jarebica Dž. Oplemenjivanje voćaka i vinove loze [Breeding of Fruit Trees and Vines, in Serbo-Croatian]. Sarajevo: Edis; 1997.
29. Maletić R. Statistika. Univerzitetski udžbenik [Statistics. Textbook Agricultural University, in Serbian]. Beograd: Mladost-biro Šped; 2005.
30. Mulić N. Eksperimentalna statistika primjenjena u poljoprivredi [Experimental Statistics, Application in Agriculture, in Serbo-Croatian]. Sarajevo: Zadrugar; 1969.
Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology
The Journal of Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health
4 Issues per year
IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.395
CiteScore 2016: 1.25
SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.382
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.652
The Influence of Tobacco Blend Composition on Carbon Monoxide Formation in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke
- University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Science, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
- University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Belgrade - Zemun, Republic of Serbia
- University St. Kliment Ohridski – Bitola, Scientific Tobacco Institute – Prilep, Macedonia
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of three main tobacco types (flue-cured FC, air-cured AC and sun-cured SC) and two tobacco-based materials (reconstituted tobacco - recon RT and expanded stem) on the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) in the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke. The results showed that the type of tobacco examined had a significant impact on the amount of carbon monoxide production in the gas phase of cigarette smoke. AC and SC tobaccos had the most evident impact. The amount of tobacco in mixtures M1, M2 and M3 as well as the addition of expanded stems had an impact on the amount of CO formed in the cigarette smoke. There is weak correlation between CO content in the smoke and the chemical composition of the tobacco. Draw resistance had an impact on CO production. The research results are of great importance, since tobacco selection is the first step in the production of cigarettes with reduced emission of harmful elements contained in the smoke.