Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Applied Linguistics Review

Editor-in-Chief: Wei, Li

4 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.351

Online
ISSN
1868-6311
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Gender-related online metalinguistic comments on Straattaal and Moroccan Flavored Dutch in the Moroccan heritage community in the Netherlands

Jacomine Nortier
Published Online: 2017-10-31 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2017-0047

Abstract

Straattaal (‘street language’) used by members of various ethnic groups contains linguistic material from English and several heritage languages with relatively many Sranan words. Moroccan Flavored Dutch (MFD) is Dutch with elements from Moroccan languages on the level of pronunciation, lexicon and/or grammar. Both Straattaal and MFD can be used by young Moroccan-Dutch. The basic question is: How is the use of MFD and Straattaal by Moroccan-Dutch females perceived within the Moroccan community in CMC? Data were collected by searching posts on social media. Male and female young Moroccan-Dutch comment negatively on Moroccan girls using Straattaal. However, MFD is used too, even by the same participants, receiving little overt attention. The use of and attitudes towards youth languages by females elsewhere sometimes differ from the Moroccan-Dutch context. Examples from Algeria, Indonesia and Hong Kong show that they are used by both females and men without overt negative connotations compared to Western Europe where they seem to be used predominantly by males. A possible explanation could be that there seems to be a gender restriction for varieties used as anti-languages (Halliday 1976), while youth varieties that mark socially upward mobility can be used by both males and females.

Keywords: youth language; social media; Straattaal; Moroccan Flavored Dutch; gender

References

  • Aissati, Abderrahman El, Louis Boumans, Leonie Cornips, Margreet Dorleijn & Jacomine Nortier. 2005. Turks- en Marokkaans-Nederlands [Turkish- and Moroccan-Dutch]. In Nicoline van der Sijs (ed.), Wereld Nederlands. Oude en jonge variëteiten van het Nederlands [World Dutch. Old and new varieties of Dutch], 149–183. Den Haag: SDU.Google Scholar

  • Androutsopoulos, Jannis. 2006. Introduction: Sociolinguistics and computer-mediated communication. Journal of Sociolinguistics 10. 419–438.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Androutsopoulos, Jannis. 2008. Potentials and limitations of discourse-centred online ethnography. Language@Internet 5(8). 20 pages. http://www.languageatinternet.org/articles/2008/1610 (accessed 16 March 2017).

  • Androutsopoulos, Jannis. 2010. Research on Youth-Language/Jugendsprach-Forschung https://jannisandroutsopoulos.files.wordpress.com/2010/01/hsk-sociolinguistics-research-on-youth-language.pdf. 1496–1505. (accessed 16 March 2017).

  • Androutsopoulos, Jannis & Michael Beißwenger (eds.). 2008. Introduction: Data and methods in Computer-Mediated Discourse Analysis. Language@internet 5. 7 pages. http://www.languageatinternet.org/articles/2008/1609/introduction.pdf. (accessed 16 March 2017).

  • Appel, René & Rob Schoonen. 2007. ‘Hé sma, warr gha jai?’ [Hey gal, where y’go?]. http://www.kennislink.nl/publicaties/ha-c-sma-warr-gha-jai (accessed 16 March 2017).

  • Armstrong, Nigel. 1998. La variation sociolinguistique dans le lexique français [Sociolinguistic variation in the French lexicon]. Zeitschrift für Romanische Philologie 114(3). 462–495.Google Scholar

  • Becetti, Abdelali. 2011. Parlers de jeunes lycéens à Alger: Pratiques plurilingues et tendances alteritaires [Dialects of young high school students in Algeria: Plurilingual practices]. Revue Le Français en Afrique 25. 153–164.Google Scholar

  • Blommaert, Jan. 2005. Discourse. A critical introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Boellstorff, Tom. 2004. Gay language and Indonesia: Registering belonging. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 14(2). 248–268.Google Scholar

  • Cameron, Deborah. 2014. Gender and language ideologies. In Susan Ehrlich, Miriam Meyerhoff & Janet Holmes (eds.), Handbook of language, gender, and sexuality, 281–296. Somerset, US: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar

  • Cornips, Leonie, Jürgen Jaspers & Vincent De Rooij. 2015. The politics of labelling youth vernaculars in the Netherlands and Belgium. In Jacomine Nortier & Bente A. Svendsen (eds.), Language, youth and identity in the twenty-first century, 45–69. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Danet, Brenda & Susan Herring (eds.). 2007. The multilingual internet. Language, culture, and communication online. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Eckert, Penelope. 1988. Adolescent social structure and the spread of linguistic change. Language in Society 17. 183–207.Google Scholar

  • Eckert, Penelope. 1995. (ay) Goes to the city. Exploring the expressive use of variation. In Gregory Guy, Crawford Feagin, Deborah Schiffrin & john Baugh (eds.), Towards a social science of language, 47–68. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Eckert, Penelope. 2000. Linguistic variation as social practice. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar

  • Eckert, Penelope. 2008. Where do ethnolects stop? International Journal of Bilingualism 12(1–2). 25–42.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Eckert, Penelope & Sally McConnell-Ginet. 2003. Language and gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Folb, Edith. 1980. Runnin’ down some lines. The language and culture of black teenagers. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar

  • Freywald, Ulrike, Leonie Cornips, Natalia Ganuza, Ingvild Nistov & Toril Opsahl. 2015. Beyond verb second – a matter of novel information-structural effects? Evidence from Norwegian, Swedish, German and Dutch. In Jacomine Nortier & Bente A. Svendsen (eds.), Language, youth and identity in the twenty-first century, 73–92. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Ginneken, Jac van. 1913. Handboek der Nederlandsche Taal [Handbook of the Dutch language]. Nijmegen: Malmberg.Google Scholar

  • Halliday, Michael. 1976. Anti-Languages. American Anthropologist 78(3). 570–584.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hanan, David. 2008. Changing social formations in Indonesian and Thai teen movies. In Ariel Heryanto (ed.), Popular Culture in Indonesia: Fluid Identities in Post Authoritarian Politics, 54–69. London & New York: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • Hedid, Souheila. 2011. Le « français des jeunes » au service de la didactique des Langues [‘Young people’s French’ serving language didactics]. Synergies Algérie 12. 81–88.Google Scholar

  • Huff, Andrew. 2015. Unity in Plurality: Bahasa Indonesia’s many incarnations https://mdsoar.org/bitstream/handle/11603/2670/Verge_11_Huff.pdf?sequence=1. (accessed 16 March 2017.)

  • Huffaker, David & Sandra Calvert. 2005. Gender, identity, and language use in teenage blogs. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 10. 00.Google Scholar

  • Jespersen, Otto. 1990 [1922]. The Woman. In Language, its Nature, Development, and Origin. London: Allan & Unwin. Reprinted in Deborah Cameron (ed.), The feminist critique of language: A reader, 201–220. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • Klerk, Vivian de. 1992. How taboo are taboo words for girls? Language in Society 21. 277–289.Google Scholar

  • Kossmann, Maarten. fc. Key and the use of Moroccan function words in Dutch internet discourse. Nederlandse Taalkunde.Google Scholar

  • Labov, Wiliam. 2001. Principles of linguistic change, Vol. 2: Social factors. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar

  • Lee, David. 1995. Sociolinguistic variation in the speech of Brisbane adolescents. In Ivar Werlen (ed.), Verbale Kommunikation in der Stadt, 175–196. Tübingen: Günter Narr Verlag.

  • Loentz, Elizabeth. 2006. Yiddish, Kanak Sprak, Klezmer, and HipHop: Ethnolect, Minority Culture, Multiculturalism, and Stereotype in Germany. Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies 25(1). 33–62.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Madsen, Lian Malay, Jens Normann Jørgensen & Janus Spindler Møller. 2010. “Street language” and “Integrated”: Language use and enregisterment among late modern urban girls. Copenhagen Studies in Bilingualism 55. 81–113.Google Scholar

  • Manns, Howard. 2013. Gaul, conversation and youth genre(s) in Java. Melbourne: Monash University PhD Thesis.Google Scholar

  • Morgan, Marcyliena. 2002. Language, discourse and power in African American culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Nortier, Jacomine. 2001. Murks en Straattaal: Vriendschap en taalgebruik onder jongeren [Murks and Straattaal: Friendship and language use among youths]. Amsterdam: Prometheus.Google Scholar

  • Nortier, Jacomine. 2016. Characterizing Urban youth speech styles in utrecht and on the internet. Journal of Language Contact 9(1). 163–185.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Nortier, Jacomine & Margreet Dorleijn. 2008. A Moroccan accent in Dutch: A sociocultural style restricted to the Moroccan community? International Journal of Bilingualism 12(1–2). 125–143.Google Scholar

  • Nortier, Jacomine & Margreet Dorleijn. 2013. Multi-ethnolects: Kebabnorsk, Perkerdansk, Verlan, Kanakensprache, Straattaal, etc. In Peter Bakker & Yaron Matras (eds.), Contact languages: A comprehensive guide, vol. 6, 237–270. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • Nortier, Jacomine & Bente A. Svendsen (eds.). 2015. Language, youth and identity in the twenty-first century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Pooley, Tim. 2000. The use of Regional French by Blancs and Beurs: Questions of identity and integration in Lille. In Farid Aitsiselmi (ed.), Black, Blanc, Beur: Youth language and identity in France, 51–70. Bradford: Department of Modern Languages, University of Bradford.Google Scholar

  • Quist, Pia. 2008. Sociolinguistic approaches to multiethnolect: Language variety and stylistic practice. International Journal of Bilingualism 12(1–2). 43–62.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Rampton, Ben. 2015. Contemporary urban vernaculars. In Jacomine Nortier & Bente A. Svendsen (eds.), Language, youth and identity in the twenty-first century, 24–44. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Sau-Ling, Luk. 2005. The use of cantonese slang by teenagers in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong MA thesis.Google Scholar

  • Smith-Hefner, Nancy. 2007. Youth language, gaul, sociability, and the new indonesian middle class. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 17(2). 184–203.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Stenström, Anna-Brita. 1997. Nonstandard grammatical features in London teenage talk. In Jan Aarts, Inge de Mönnink & Herman Wekker (eds.), Studies in English language teaching and research. Festschrift for Flor Aarts, 141–152. Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar

  • Stenström, Anna-Brita, Gisle Andersen & Ingrid Kristine Hasund. 2002. Trends in teenage talk. Corpus compilation, analysis and findings. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

  • Svendsen, Bente A. 2015. Introduction. In Jacomine Nortier & Bente A. Svendsen (eds.), Language, youth and identity in the twenty-first century, 3–24. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • United Nations. 2015. www.un.org/esa/population/unpop.htm.

  • Wong Man Tat, Parco. 2006. A sociolinguistic study of youth Slanguage of Hong Kong Adolescents. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong MA Thesis.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2017-10-31


Citation Information: Applied Linguistics Review, ISSN (Online) 1868-6311, ISSN (Print) 1868-6303, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2017-0047.

Export Citation

© 2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston. Copyright Clearance Center

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in