Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Applied Linguistics Review

Editor-in-Chief: Wei, Li

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.098
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.871

See all formats and pricing
More options …

The moment I realized I am plurilingual”: Plurilingual tasks for creative representations in EAP at a Canadian university

Angelica Galante
Published Online: 2019-01-19 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2018-0116


In many urban settings across the globe, English for Academic Purposes (EAP) classes are inherently multilingual and provide unique possibilities to explore a wealth of languages and cultures as well as the interactions among them. Although the field of applied linguistics has historically followed monolingual ideologies, a plurilingual approach in EAP can provide insights into language practices that are situated, creative and contextualized. Raising students’ awareness of their own plurilingual and pluricultural repertoire is key to preparing them to make mindful decisions about culture and language use in real-life situations; plurilingual instruction incudes translanguaging, validating plurilingual identities, as well as understanding pluriculturalism, all of which can open up possibilities for creativity in culture and language use. While research shows plurilingual-inspired pedagogies can benefit language learning, little is known about the extent to which they can enhance creative representations of language and culture. This article reports results from a study on the effects of plurilingual instruction on creativity in an EAP program. Seven EAP instructors delivered plurilingual tasks to adult students at a Canadian university. Data from demographic questionnaires, Language Portraits, student diaries (N=28), and classroom observations (N=21) were qualitatively analyzed and triangulated. Results suggest that the use of plurilingual tasks afforded a heightened awareness of plurilingual/pluricultural identity and validated the creative use of linguistic and cultural resources, including translanguaging. Suggestions for the inclusion of creative data collection instruments and plurilingual instruction in applied linguistics classroom research are made.

Keywords: plurilingual; pluricultural; translanguaging; creativity; identity


  • Auer, P. & L. Wei. 2007. Handbook of multilingualism and multilingual communication. Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter.Google Scholar

  • Baker, C. 2011. Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism. 5th ed. Toronto, Canada: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar

  • Baker, C. & S. Prys Jones. 1998. Encyclopedia of bilingualism and bilingual education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar

  • Blackledge, A. & A. Creese. 2010. Multilingualism: A critical perspective. New York: Continuum.Google Scholar

  • Blommaert, J. & A. Backus. 2013. Superdiverse repertoires and the individual. In I. Saint-Georges & J. J. Weber (eds.), Multilingualism and Multimodality: Current challenges for educational studies, 11–32. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar

  • Boeckmann, K.-B., A. Aalto, T. Atanasoska & T. Lamb. 2011. Promoting plurilingualism: Majority language in multilingual settings. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Publishing. Retrieved from http://www.ecml.at/tabid/277/PublicationID/75/Default.aspx.

  • Bradley, J., E. Moore, J. Simpson & L. Atkinson. 2018. Translanguaging space and creative activity: Theorizing collaborative arts-based learning. Language and Intercultural Communication 18(1). 54–73.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Busch, B. 2012. The linguistic repertoire revisited. Applied Linguistics 33(5). 503–523.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Busch, B. 2015. Expanding the notion of the linguistic repertoire: on the concept of Spracherleben—the lived experience. Applied Linguistics 36(4). 1–20.Google Scholar

  • Canada. (1982). The Canadian charter of rights and freedoms. Retrieved from http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection/CH37-4-3-2002E.pdf

  • Canada. (1985). Canadian multicultural act. Retrieved from http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/PDF/C-18.7.pdf

  • Canada, Statistics. (2016). Census profile, 2016 Census: Toronto, city [census subdivision], Ontario and Canada [Country]. Retrieved from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CSD&Code1=3520005&Geo2=PR&Code2=01&Data=Count&SearchText=3520005&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&Custom=&TABID=3

  • Canada’s International Education Strategy. (2014). Harnessing our knowledge advantage to drive innovation and prosperity. Retrieved from http://international.gc.ca/global-markets-marchesmondiaux/education/strategy-strategie.aspx?lang=eng

  • Canagarajah, S. 2011. Translanguaging in the classroom: Emerging issues for research and pedagogy. Applied Linguistics Review 2. 1–28.Google Scholar

  • Cenoz, J. 2013. Defining multilingualism. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 33. 3–18.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cenoz, J. & D. Gorter. 2013. Towards a plurilingual approach in English language teaching: Softening the boundaries between languages. TESOL Quarterly 47(3). 591–599.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cenoz, J. & D. Gorter. 2015. Multilingual education: Between language learning and translanguaging. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Conteh, J. & G. Meier. 2014. The multilingual turn: Opportunities and challenges. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar

  • Coste, D., D. Moore & G. Zarate. 2009. Plurilingual and pluricultural competence: Studies towards a common European framework of reference for language learning and teaching. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Publishing. Retrieved from https://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Source/SourcePublications/CompetencePlurilingue09web_en.pdf.

  • Council of Europe. 2001. Common European framework of reference for languages. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Publishing. Retrieved from http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/source/framework_en.pdf.

  • Council of Europe. 2006. Plurilingual education in Europe. Strasbourg, France: Language Policy Division. Retrieved from http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Source/PlurinlingalEducation_EN.pdf.

  • Council of Europe. 2007. Guide for the development of language education policies in Europe: From linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Publishing. Retrieved from http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Guide_niveau3_EN.asp-TopOfPage.

  • Council of Europe. (2018). Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment-Companion volume with new descriptors. Retrieved from https://rm.coe.int/cefr-companion-volume-with-new-descriptors-2018/1680787989

  • Creese, A. & A. Blackledge. 2010. Translanguaging in the bilingual classroom: A pedagogy for learning and teaching? Modern Language Journal 94(1). 103–115.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Crystal, D. 1987. The Cambridge encyclopedia of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Cummins, J. 2009. Multilingualism in the English-language classroom: Pedagogical considerations. TESOL Quarterly 43(2). 317–321.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cummins, J. 2017. Teaching for transfer in multilingual school contexts. In O. García, A. Lin & S. May (eds.), Bilingual and multilingual education, encyclopedia of language and education, 103–115. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar

  • Darvin, N. & B. Norton. 2015. Identity and a model of investment in applied linguistics. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 35. 36–56.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Furlong, A. 2009. The relation of plurilingualism/culturalism to creativity: A matter of perception. International Journal of Multilingualism 6(4). 343–368.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Galante, A. 2018. Linguistic and cultural diversity in language education through plurilingualism: linking the theory into practice. In P. P. Trifonas & T. Aravossitas (eds.), International handbook on research and practice in heritage language education, 313–329. Toronto: Springer.Google Scholar

  • Galante, A. forthcoming. Plurilingualism and TESOL in two Canadian post-secondary institutions: Towards context-specific perspectives. In S. Lau & S. Stille (eds.), Plurilingual pedagogies: Critical and creative endeavours for equitable language education. Toronto, Canada: Springer.Google Scholar

  • García, O. & A. Lin. 2017. Translanguaging in bilingual education. In O. García, A. Lin & S. May (eds.), Bilingual and multilingual education, encyclopedia of language and education, 117–130. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar

  • García, O. & L. Wei. 2014. Translanguaging: Language, bilingualism and education. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar

  • Gort, M. 2015. Transforming literacy learning and teaching through translanguaging and other typical practices associated with “doing being bilingual.”. International Multilingual Research Journal 9(1). 1–6.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gort, M. & S. F. Sembiante. 2015. Navigating hybridized language learning spaces through translanguaging pedagogy: Dual language preschool teachers’ languaging practices in support of emergent bilingual children’s performance of academic discourse. International Multilingual Research Journal 9(1). 7–25.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Green, D. & L. Wei. 2014. A control process model of code-switching. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience 29(4). 499–511.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Guba, E.G. 1981. ERIC/ECTJ annual review paper: Criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries. Educational Communication and Technology: A Journal of Theory, Research and Development 29. 75–91.Google Scholar

  • Hall, L. M. (1996). Languaging: the Linguistics of psychotherapy. How language works psycho-therapeutically: An exploration into the art and science of “Therapeutic languaging” in four psychotherapies using general semantic formulations. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. The Union Institute. Dissertation Abstracts International A, 57 (11) 4717.Google Scholar

  • Krumm, H.-J. & E.-M. Jenkins. 2001. Kinder und ihre Sprachen - lebendige Mehrsprachigkeit: Sprachenportraits gesammelt und kommentiert von Hans-Jürgen Krumm [Children and languages - living multilingualism: Language portraits collected and annotated by Hans-Jürgen Krumm]. Vienna, Austria: Eviva.Google Scholar

  • Kubota, R. 2014. The multi/plural turn, postcolonial theory, and neoliberal multiculturalism: Complicities and implications for applied linguistics. Applied Linguistics 37(4). 474–494.Google Scholar

  • Lado, R. 1979. Thinking and “Languaging”: A psycholinguistic model of performance and learning. Sophia Linguistica 12. 3–24.Google Scholar

  • Lau, S. M. C. 2016. Language, identity and emotionality: Exploring the potential of language portraits in preparing teachers for diverse learners. The New Educator 12(2). 147–170.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Leech, N. L. & A. J. Onwuegbuzie. 2007. An array of qualitative data analysis tools: A call for data analysis triangulation. School Psychology Quarterly 22(4). 557–584.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lewis, G., B. Jones & C. Baker. 2012. Translanguaging: Developing its conceptualisation and contextualization. Educational Research and Evaluation 18(7). 655–670.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lüdi, G. 2014. Dynamics and management of linguistic diversity in companies and institutes of higher education: Results from the DYLAN project. In P. Grommes & H. Wu (eds.), Plurilingual education: Policies – Practices – Language development, 113–138. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.Google Scholar

  • Marshall, S. & D. Moore. 2013. 2B or not 2B plurilingual: Navigating languages literacies, and plurilingual competence in postsecondary education in Canada. TESOL Quarterly 47(3). 472–499.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Marshall, S. & D. Moore. 2018. Plurilingualism amid the panoply of lingualisms: Addressing critiques and misconceptions in education. International Journal of Multilingualism 15(1). 19–34.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Martínez, R., M. Hikida & L. Durán. 2015. Unpacking ideologies of linguistic purism: How dual language teachers make sense of everyday translanguaging. International Multilingual Research Journal 9(1). 26–42.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Mitchell, C., L. Theron, J. Stuart, A. Smith & Z. Campbell. 2011. Drawings as research method. In L. Theron, C. Mitchell, A. Smith & J. Stuart (eds.), Picturing research: Drawing as visual methodology, 19–36. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar

  • Norton, B. 2013. Identity and language learning: Extending the conversation. 2nd ed. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar

  • Norton, B. 2016. Identity and language learning: Back to the future. TESOL Quarterly 50(2). 475–479.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Oliver-Hoyo, M. & D. Allen. 2006. The use of triangulation methods in qualitative educational research. Journal of College Science Teaching 35. 42–47.Google Scholar

  • Otheguy, R., O. García & W. Reid. 2015. Clarifying translaguaging and deconstructing named languages: A perspective from linguistics. Applied Linguistics Review 6(3). 281–307.Google Scholar

  • Otheguy, R., O. García & W. Reid. 2018. A translanguaging view of the linguistic system of bilinguals. Applied Linguistics Review. Advance online publication. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Otsuji, E. & A. Pennycook. 2010. Metrolingualism: Fixity, fluidity and language in flux. International Journal of Multilingualism 7(3). 240–254.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Palmer, D. K., R. A. Martínez, S. G. Mateus & K. Henderson. 2014. Reframing the debate on language separation: Toward a vision for translanguaging pedagogies in dual language classroom. The Modern Language Journal 98(3). 757–772.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Patton, M. Q. 2015. Qualitative research and evaluation methods. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar

  • Piccardo, E. 2013. Plurilingualism and curriculum design: Towards a synergic vision. TESOL Quarterly 47(3). 600–614.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Piccardo, E. 2016. La diversité culturelle et linguistique comme ressource à la créativité. Voix Plurielles 13(1). 57–75.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Piccardo, E. 2017. Plurilingualism as a catalyst for creativity in superdiverse societies: A systemic analysis. Frontiers in Psychology 8. 1–13.Google Scholar

  • Piccardo, E. & I. Puozzo Capron. 2013. La créativité pour développer la compétence plurilingue déséquilibrée. In G. Alao, M. Derivry, E. Suzuki & S. Yun-Roger (eds.), Didactique plurilingue et pluriculturelle l’acteur en contexte mondialisé, 23–36. Paris, France: Edition des Archives Contemporaines.Google Scholar

  • Piccardo, E. & I. Puozzo Capron. 2015. Introduction. From second language pedagogy to the pedagogy of ‘plurilingualism’: A possible paradigm shift? / De la didactique des langues à la didactique du plurilinguisme : un changement de paradigme possible? The Canadian Modern Language Review / La revue canadienne des langues vivantes 71(4). 317–323.Google Scholar

  • Prasad, G. 2014. Children as co-ethnographers of their plurilingual literacy practices: An exploratory case study. Language and Literacy 15(3). 4–30.Google Scholar

  • Sayer, P. 2013. Translanguaging, TexMex, and bilingual pedagogy: Emergent bilinguals learning through the vernacular. TESOL Quarterly 47(1). 63–88.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Schwarts, M. & A. Asli. 2014. Bilingual teachers’ language strategies: The case of an Arabic-Hebrew kindergarten in Israel. Teaching and Teacher Education 38. 22–32.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Skutnabb-Kangas, T. 2002. Why should linguistic diversity be maintained and supported in Europe? Some arguments. In Guide for the development of language education policies in Europe – From language diversity to plurilingual education. Strasbourg, FR: Council of Europe.Google Scholar

  • Swain, M. 2006. Languaging, agency and collaboration in advanced language proficiency. In H. Byrnes (ed.), Advanced language learning: The contribution of Halliday and Vygotsky, 95–108. London: Continuum.Google Scholar

  • Swain, M. 2010. Talking it through: languaging as a source of learning. In R. Batstone (ed.), Sociolinguistic perspectives on second language learning and use, 112–130. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Swain, M. & S. Lapkin. 2002. Talking it through: Two French immersion learners’ response to reformulation. International Journal of Educational Research 37. 285–304.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Swain, M., S. Lapkin, I. Knouzi, W. Suzuki & L. Brooks. 2009. Languaging: University students learn the grammatical concept of voice in French. Modern Language Journal 93. 5–29.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Swann, J. & J. Maybin. 2007. Language creativity in everyday contexts. Applied Linguistics 28(4). 491–496.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Tuckett, A. G. 2005. Rigour in qualitative research: Complexities and solutions. Nurse Researcher 13. 29–42.Google Scholar

  • Wei, L. 2011. Moment analysis and translanguaging space: Discursive construction of identities by multilingual Chinese youth in Britain. Journal of Pragmatics 43. 1222–1235.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wei, L. 2018. Translanguaging as a practical theory of language. Applied Linguistics 39(1). 9–30.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Williams, C. (1994) Arfarniad o Ddulliau Dysgu ac Addysgu yng Nghyd-destun Addysg Uwchradd Ddwyieithog, [An evaluation of teaching and learning methods in the context of bilingual secondary education]. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. Bangor: University of Wales.Google Scholar

  • Williams, C. 1996. Secondary education: Teaching in the bilingual situation. In C. Williams, G. Lewis & C. Baker (eds.), The language policy: Taking stock, 39–78. Llangefni, Wales: CAI.Google Scholar

  • Wilson, J. & M. G. Davies. 2017. Tackling the plurilingual/monolingual classroom phenomenon. TESOL Quarterly 51(1). 207–219.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2019-01-19

Citation Information: Applied Linguistics Review, ISSN (Online) 1868-6311, ISSN (Print) 1868-6303, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2018-0116.

Export Citation

© 2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in