Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Acta Medica Bulgarica

2 Issues per year

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Toxoplasmosis and its Ocular Manifestations

Kr. Koev
Published Online: 2014-11-05 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/amb-2014-0009


The present review provides general information about the parasitic infection of toxoplasmosis and describes the ways of its transmission. It outlines the importance of the consequences of toxoplasmosis infection and the methods of its prevention. The review traces the harmful effects of the disease on human and animal organisms, the causes and stages of development of the disease. The review specifically focuses on the ocular manifestations of toxoplasmosis which can cause ocular lesions, inflammation and scarring. Herein are described the ways toxoplasmosis can damage the eyes causing chorioretinitis, nystagmus, microphthalmia, etc. Furthermore, the review addresses the problem of how congenital and acquired toxoplasmosis affects eyes. The ocular symptoms of toxoplasmosis include weakened or blurred vision, eyeballs pain, ocular sensitivity to light, etc. The harmful effects of toxoplasmosis to pregnant women and immunocompromised patients have been delineated. Some of the disease manifestations include jaundice, rash, asphyxia, etc. The review traces the diagnostic work-up and comments on common tests for toxoplasmosis, such as taking of blood serum samples. The review ends with the treatment of the disease and of its ocular manifestations in particular, for example application of intravitreous injection. The prevention of the infection is extremely important for pregnant women, immunocompromised patients and patients with AIDS.

Keywords : toxoplasmosis; ocular manivestations


  • 1. Foudrinier, F., I. Villena, R. Jaussaud et D. Aubert. Clinical Value of Specifi c Immunoglobulin E Detection by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in Cases of Acquired and Congenital Toxoplasmosis, 41, 2003, № 4, 1681-1686.Google Scholar

  • 2. Christopher, D. et al. Hunter Immune response and immunopathology during toxoplasmosis Semin Immunopathol. - Semin Immunopathol., 34, 2012, № 6, 793-813.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 3. Louis , M. Toxoplasmosis: a history of clinical observations. - Int. J. Parasitol., 39, 2009, № 8, 895-901.Google Scholar

  • 4. Sterers , Y., F. Pratlong et S. Albaba. Novel Interpretation of Molecular Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis According to Gestational Age at the Time of Maternal Infection, 50, 2012, № 12, 3944-3951.Google Scholar

  • 5. Willerson J r. , D. et al. Unusual ocular presentation of acute toxoplasmosis. - Br. J. Ophthalmol., 61, 1977, № 11, 693-698.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 6. Charles , J. Kipp, Hemorrhagic Central Chorioretinitis in Non-myopic Eyes: A Clinical Contribution. - Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc., 12, 1909, (Pt 1), 250-266.Google Scholar

  • 7. Turunen , H. J., P. O. Leinikki, K. M. Saari. Demonstration of intraocular synthesis of immunoglobulin G toxoplasma antibodies for specifi c diagnosis of toxoplasmicchorioretinitis by enzyme immunoassay. - J. Clin. Microbiol., 17, 1983, № 6, 988-992.Google Scholar

  • 8. Florence Robert-Gangneux, Marie-Laure Dardé. Epidemiology of and Diagnostic Strategies for Toxoplasmosis. - Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 25, 2012, № 3, 583.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 9. Villard , O. et al. J Clin Microbiol, Comparison of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Immunoblotting, and PCR for Diagnosis of Toxoplasmic Chorioretinitis, 41, 2003, № 8, 3537-3541.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 10. Connor, G. R. O. The infl eunce of hypersensitivity on the pathogenesis of ocular toxoplasmosis. - Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc., 68, 1970, 501-547.Google Scholar

  • 11. Gwendolyn Noble , A. Paul Latkany, Jaroslaw Kusmierczyk, the Toxoplasmosis Study Group, Chorioretinal lesions in mothers of children with congenital toxoplasmosis in the National Collaborative Chicago-based, CongenitalToxoplasmosis Study. - Sci. Med. (Porto Alegre), 20, 2010, № 1, 20-26.Google Scholar

  • 12. McLeod , R. et al. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Why prevent, diagnose and treat congenital toxoplasmosis? - Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz., 104, 2009, № 2, 320-344.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 13. Stillwaggon , E. et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, Maternal Serologic Screening to Prevent Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Decision-Analytic Economic Model, 5, 2011, № 9, e1333.Google Scholar

  • 14. McLeod , R. et al. Why prevent, diagnose and treat congenital toxoplasmosis? - Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz., 104, 2009, № 2, 320-344.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 15. Young- Hoon Park, Ho-Woo Nam, Clinical Features and Treatment of Ocular Toxoplasmosis. - Korean J. Parasitol., 51, 2013, № 4, 393-399. Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2014-11-05

Published in Print: 2014-06-01

Citation Information: Acta Medica Bulgarica, Volume 41, Issue 1, Pages 75–81, ISSN (Online) 0324-1750, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/amb-2014-0009.

Export Citation

© 2014. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in