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Acta Medica Bulgarica

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The Adverse Health Effects of Shift Work in Relation to Risk of Illness/Disease: A Review

A. Shariat
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia
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/ Sh. Bahri Mohd Tamrin
  • Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia
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/ A. Daneshjoo
  • Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
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  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ H. Sadeghi
  • Faculty of Educational Studies, Department of Sport Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
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  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2015-05-22 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/amb-2015-0009


Biological rhythm of sleeping is a natural disparity in an organism corresponding to and in reply to cyclic environmental changes, such as daylight hours and hours of darkness or elevated and low down flow. There is some evidence, based upon epidemiological studies as well as studies upon smaller groups of subjects, that individuals who work during the night and sleep during the daytime show cognitive impairment at work, have poorer and fragmented daytime sleep, and have increased risks of developing a wide range of social, psychological, physiological and medical impairments and disorders. Circadian rhythms are one of the most important effective factors on the physiological and physical performances of humans and disturbing this normal rhythm leads to different groups of diseases. The majority of investigations in biological rhythm demeanor vary noticeably in regards to the exact type of disease, population and protocols of sampling over the other outcomes or issues. We conducted a systematic review of [Science Direct, Pubmed, Scopus] to identify influence of different kinds of diseases among shift workers in response to abnormal rhythm of sleeping. The results of this review indicate that abnormal patterns of sleeping can lead to immunological issues, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, insomnia, cardiovascular disease, obesity and depression. It is vital for subsequent investigations to find a way to reduce negative effects (such as decreased amount of works’ time and altered diet) without side effects to help them.

Keywords : biological rhythm; sleeping; physiological; physical; shift workers


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About the article

Published Online: 2015-05-22

Published in Print: 2015-05-01

Citation Information: Acta Medica Bulgarica, Volume 42, Issue 1, Pages 63–72, ISSN (Online) 0324-1750, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/amb-2015-0009.

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© 2015. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

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