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American Mineralogist

Journal of Earth and Planetary Materials

Ed. by Baker, Don / Xu, Hongwu / Swainson, Ian

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 2.645

CiteScore 2017: 2.31

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 1.440
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.059

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Volume 101, Issue 1


The W-WO2 oxygen fugacity buffer (WWO) at high pressure and temperature: Implications for fO2 buffering and metal-silicate partitioning

Gregory A. Shofner
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Geosciences, Towson University, 8000 York Road, Towson, Maryland 21252, U.S.A.
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  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Andrew J. Campbell
  • Department of the Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637, U.S.A.
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/ Lisa R. Danielson / Kevin Righter / Rebecca A. Fischer
  • Department of the Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637, U.S.A.
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/ Yanbin Wang
  • Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Building 434A, Argonne, Illinois 60439, U.S.A.
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/ Vitali Prakapenka
  • Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Building 434A, Argonne, Illinois 60439, U.S.A.
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Published Online: 2016-01-09 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2138/am-2016-5328


Synchrotron X-ray diffraction data were obtained to simultaneously measure unit-cell volumes of W and WO2 at pressures and temperatures up to 70 GPa and 2300 K. Both W and WO2 unit-cell volume data were fit to Mie-Grüneisen equations of state; parameters for W are KT = 307 (±0.4) GPa, KT=4.05(±0.04), γ0 = 1.61 (±0.03), and q = 1.54 (±0.13). Three phases were observed in WO2 with structures in the P21/c, Pnma, and C2/c space groups. The transition pressures are 4 and 32 GPa for the P21/c-Pnma and Pnma-C2/c phase changes, respectively. The P21/c and Pnma phases have previously been described, whereas the C2/c phase is newly described here. Equations of state were fitted for these phases over their respective pressure ranges yielding the parameters KT = 238 (±7), 230 (±5), 304 (±3) GPa, KT=4, 4 (fixed), 4 (fixed) GPa, γ0 = 1.45 (±0.18), 1.22 (±0.07), 1.21 (±0.12), and q = 1 (fixed), 2.90 (±1.5), 1 (fixed) for the P21/c, Pnma, and C2/c phases, respectively. The W-WO2 buffer (WWO) was extended to high pressure using these W and WO2 equations of state. The T-fO2 slope of the WWO buffer along isobars is positive from 1000 to 2500 K with increasing pressure up to at least 60 GPa. The WWO buffer is at a higher fO2 than the iron-wüstite (IW) buffer at pressures lower than 40 GPa, and the magnitude of this difference decreases at higher pressures. This implies an increasingly lithophile character for W at higher pressures. The WWO buffer was quantitatively applied to W metal-silicate partitioning by using the WWO-IW buffer difference in combination with literature data on W metal-silicate partitioning to model the exchange coefficient (KD) for the Fe-W exchange reaction. This approach captures the non-linear pressure dependence of W metal-silicate partitioning using the WWO-IW buffer difference. Calculation of KD along a peridotite liquidus predicts a decrease in W siderophility at higher pressures that supports the qualitative behavior predicted by the WWO-IW buffer difference, and agrees with findings of others. Comparing the competing effects of temperature and pressure the results here indicate that pressure exerts a greater effect on W metal-silicate partitioning.

Keywords: High pressure; tungsten; oxygen fugacity buffer; equation of state; metal-silicate partitioning

Special collection information can be found at http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/AmMin/special-collections.html.

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About the article

Received: 2015-02-13

Accepted: 2015-07-22

Published Online: 2016-01-09

Published in Print: 2016-01-01

Manuscript handled by Tracy Rushmer.

Citation Information: American Mineralogist, Volume 101, Issue 1, Pages 211–221, ISSN (Online) 1945-3027, ISSN (Print) 0003-004X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2138/am-2016-5328.

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© 2016 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston.

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