Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

American Mineralogist

Journal of Earth and Planetary Materials

Ed. by Baker, Don / Xu, Hongwu / Swainson, Ian

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 2.645

CiteScore 2018: 2.55

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 1.355
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.103

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 102, Issue 1


Hydroxyl, Cl, and F partitioning between high-silica rhyolitic melts-apatite-fluid(s) at 50–200 MPa and 700–1000 °C

James D. Webster
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, New York 10024-5192, United States of America
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Beth A. Goldoff
  • Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, New York 10024-5192, United States of America
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ryan N. Flesch
  • Department of Geology, College of William and Mary, P.O. Box 8795, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795, United States of America
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Patricia A. Nadeau
  • Department of Geological Sciences, Salem State University, 352 Lafayette Street, Salem, Massachusetts 01970 United States of America
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Zachary W. Silbert
  • Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, SUNY Oneonta, Oneonta, New York 13820, United States of America
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-01-03 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2138/am-2017-5746


Hydrothermal experiments were conducted with fluid- and apatite-saturated, high-silica rhyolitic melts at ca. 700–1000 °C and 50–200 MPa to determine the distribution of H2O/OH, Cl, and F between melt, apatite, aqueous vapor, brine, or vapor plus brine. Seed grains of fluorapatite (1–3 µm diameter) were added to starting charges to serve as apatite nucleation sites. CaHPO4 and Ca(OH)2 were used to stimulate apatite crystallization, and temperature was cycled daily, ±10 to ±15 °C, to promote growth of relatively equant apatite crystals large enough for electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The experiments were conducted with gold capsules and run in cold-seal pressure vessels on a hydrothermal line and an internally heated gas pressure vessel for durations of 165 to 1149 h.

The run-product glasses were analyzed by EPMA and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, apatites by EPMA, and most fluid phases by chloridometer; Cl contents of fluids were also estimated by mass-balance calculations. The fluids contained 0.3–39 wt% Cl at run conditions. Most experiments were conducted at 50 MPa, and these glasses contain 0.02–0.42 wt% Cl, 1.8–3.1 wt% H2O, and 0.01–0.19 wt% F. The molar Al2O3/(CaO+Na2O+K2O) (=A/CNK) and molar Na2O/(Na2O+K2O)(=N/NK) ratios of the 50 MPa glasses range from 0.88 to 1.04 and 0.48 to 0.68, respectively, and straddle the A/CNK and N/NK of the starting glass (0.99 and 0.59, respectively). The measured wt% Cl and F in the 50 MPa apatites range from 0.14 to 3.8 ( XClAp of 0.02 to 0.56) and 0.32 to 2.4 ( XFAp of 0.08 to 0.63), respectively. Stoichiometrically constrained XOHAp ranges from 0.14 to 0.7.

Partition and exchange coefficients were determined for OH, Cl, and F distribution between apatite and melt±fluids. The distribution of these volatile components varies with pressure and melt and apatite compositions. The exchange of F and Cl between apatite and melt, for example, fluctuates with the Si, P, Mg, Na, Ce, Fe, and S±Ca contents of the apatite and with the molar A/CNK and N/NK ratios of the melts. Water and hydroxyl exchange between experimental apatite and melt was also investigated. It is determined empirically that the: XH2Omelt/XClmelt = [(−19.66) + (39.13) XOHAp/XClAp] for felsic melts at 50 to 200 MPa, having molar A/CNK ratios between 0.88 and 1.1, N/NK ratios >0.55, and containing ca. 2–6 wt% H2O. The apatites are characterized by per formula unit (6 > Si/Mg > 0.3). We test this relationship by comparing H2O contents measured in melt inclusions from Augustine volcano, Alaska, with calculated H2O concentrations of melts based on compositions of apatites from 9 samples from 7 of its felsic eruptive units. The results for both approaches are consistent within precision for 6 of the samples.

The empirical volatile exchange relationships determined for melt-apatite, melt-fluid, and apatite-fluid pairs are applicable to various magmatic systems. One implication of this study is that the H2O concentrations of felsic melts may be calculated from apatite compositions for volcanic systems involving equilibrium between these phases at 50 to 200 MPa, if estimates for the Cl contents of the melts are available. This approach, however, will require additional experimentation and testing. The compositions of igneous apatites could also provide fundamental constraints on the concentrations of H2O and other volatiles in mineralizing plutonic systems for which melt inclusions are small, rare, and/or crystallized. Magmatic apatites may also support assessment of H2O concentrations in melts derived from melt inclusion compositions.

Keywords: Apatite; melt; fluids; hydroxyl; chlorine; fluorine

References cited

  • Antignano, A., and Manning, C.E. (2008) Fluorapatite solubility in H2O and H2O–NaCl at 700 to 900 °C and 0.7 to 2.0 GPa. Chemical Geology, 251, 112–119.Google Scholar

  • Audetat, A., and Lowenstern, J.B. (2014) Melt inclusions. In H.D. Holland and K.K. Turekian, Eds., Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits, Treatise on Geochemistry (2nd ed.), 13 143173 .CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Baker, D.R. (2008) The fidelity of melt inclusions as records of melt composition. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 156, 377–395.Google Scholar

  • Barnes, J.J., Tartese, R., Anand, M., McCubbin, F.M., Franchi, I.A., Starkey, N.A., and Russell, S.S. (2014) The origin of water in the primitive Moon as revealed by the lunar highlands samples. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 390, 244–252.Google Scholar

  • Bodnar, R.J., Burnham, C.W., and Sterner, S.M. (1985) Synthetic fluid inclusions in natural quartz, III: determination of phase equilibrium properties in the system H2O-NaCl to 1000°C and 1500 bars. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 49, 1861–1873.Google Scholar

  • Botcharnikov, R.E., Behrens, H., and Holtz, F. (2006) Solubility and speciation of C-O-H fluids in andesitic melt at T = 1100°C and P = 200 and 500 MPa. Chemical Geology, 229, 125–143.Google Scholar

  • Botcharnikov, R.E., Holtz, F., and Behrens, H. (2007) The effect of CO2 on the solubility of H2O-Cl fluids in andesitic melt. European Journal of Mineralogy, 19, 671–680.Google Scholar

  • Boyce, J.W., Liu, Y., Rossman, G.R., Guan, Y., Eiler, J.M., Stolper, E.M., and Taylor, L.A. (2010) Lunar apatite with terrestrial volatile abundances. Nature, 466, 466–470.Google Scholar

  • Boyce, J.W., Tomlinson, S.M., McCubbin, F.M., Greenwood, J.P., and Treiman, A.H. (2014) The lunar apatite paradox. Science, 344, 400–402.Google Scholar

  • Brenan, J.M. (1993) Partitioning of fluorine and chlorine between apatite and aqueous fluids at high pressure and temperature: Implications for the F and Cl content of high P-T fluids. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 117(1–2), 251–263.Google Scholar

  • (1994) Kinetics of fluorine, chlorine and hydroxyl exchange in fluorapatite. Chemical Geology, 110, 195–210.Google Scholar

  • Candela, P.A. (1986) Toward a thermodynamic model for the halogens in magmatic systems: An application to melt-vapor-apatite equilibria. Chemical Geology, 57, 289–301.Google Scholar

  • Doherty, A., Webster, J.D. Goldoff, B., and Piccoli, P. (2014) Partitioning behavior of chlorine and fluorine in felsic melt-fluid(s)-apatite systems at 50 MPa and 850–950 °C. Chemical Geology, 384 94111 .CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Dreisner, T., and Heinrich, C.A. (2007) The system H2O-NaCl. Part I: Correlation formulae for phase relations in temperature-pressure-composition space from 0 to 1000°C, 0 to 5000 bar, and 0 to 1 XNaCl. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71, 4880–4901.Google Scholar

  • Esposito, R., Lamadrid, H.M., Redi, D., Steele-MacInnis, M., Bodnar, R.J., Manning, C.E., De Vivo, B., Cannatelli, C., and Lima, A. (2016) Detection of liquid H2O in vapor bubbles in reheated melt inclusions: Implications for magmatic fluid composition and volatile budgets of magmas. American Mineralogist, 101, 1691–1695.Google Scholar

  • Fleet, M.E., Liu, X., and Pan, Y. (2000) Site preference of rare earth elements in hydroxylapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2]. Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 149, 391–398.Google Scholar

  • Ghiorso, M.S., and Gualda, G.A.R. (2015) An H2O-CO2 mixed fluid saturation model compatible with rhyolite-MELTS. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 169, 53–71.Google Scholar

  • Goldoff, B., Webster, J.D., and Harlov, D. (2012) Characterization of fluorchlorapatites by electron probe microanalysis with a focus on time-dependent intensity variation of halogens. American Mineralogist, 97, 1103–1115, .CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Greenwood, J.P., Itoh, S., Sakamoto, N., Warren, P., Taylor, L., and Yurimoto, H. (2011) Hydrogen isotope ratios in lunar rocks indicate delivery of cometary water to the Moon. Nature Geoscience, 4, 79–82.Google Scholar

  • Gross, J., Filiberto, J., and Bell, A.S. (2013) Water in the martian interior: Evidence for terrestrial MORB mantle-like volatile contents from hydroxyl-rich apatite in olivine-phyric shergottite NWA 62345. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 369–370, 120–128.Google Scholar

  • Hughes, J.M., Heffernan, K.M., Goldoff, B., and Nekvasil, H. (2015) Cl-rich fluorapatite, devoid of OH, from the Three Peaks area, Utah: the first reported structure of natural Cl-rich fluorapatite. Canadian Mineralogist, .CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Jarosewich, E., Nelen, J.A., and Norberg, J.A. (1980) Reference samples for electron microprobe analysis. Geostandards Newsletter, 4(1), 43–47.Google Scholar

  • Johnston, D.A. (1978) Volatiles, magma mixing, and the mechanism of eruption of Mt. St. Augustine Volcano, Alaska, Seattle, Washington, 177 p. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington.Google Scholar

  • Kusebauch, C., John, T., Whitehouse, M.J., Klemme, S., and Putnis, A. (2015) Distribution of halogens between fluid and apatite during fluid-mediated replacement processes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 170, 225–246.Google Scholar

  • Lowenstern, J.B. (1994) Chlorine, fluid immiscibility, and degassing in peralkaline magmas from Pantelleria, Italy. American Mineralogist, 79, 353–369.Google Scholar

  • Macdonald, R., Smith, R.L., and Thomas, J.E. (1992) Chemistry of the subalkalic silicic obsidians. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 1523, 214 p.Google Scholar

  • Mandeville, C.M., Webster, J.D., Rutherford, M.J., Taylor, B.E., Timbal, A., and Faure, K. (2002) Determination of molar absorptivities for infrared absorption bands of H2O in andesitic glasses. American Mineralogist, 87, 813–821.Google Scholar

  • Marks, M.A.W., Wenzel, T., Whitehouse, M.J., Loose, M., Zack, T., Barth, M., Worgard, L., Krasz, V., Eby, G.N., Stosnach, H., and Markl, G. (2012) The volatile inventory (F, Cl, Br, S, C) of magmatic apatite: An integrated analytical approach. Chemical Geology, 291, 241–255.Google Scholar

  • Mathez, E.A., and Webster, J.D. (2005) Partitioning behavior of chlorine and fluorine in the system apatite-silicate melt-fluid. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69(5), 1275–1286.Google Scholar

  • McCubbin, F.M., and Jones, R.H. (2015) Extraterrestrial apatite: planetary geochemistry to astrobiology. Elements, 11, 183–188.Google Scholar

  • McCubbin, F.M., Steele, A., Hauri, E.H., Nekvasil, H., Yamashita, S., and Hemley, F.J. (2010a) Nominally hydrous magmatism on the Moon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 11223–11228.Google Scholar

  • McCubbin, F.M., Steele, A., Nekvasil, H., Schnieders, A., Rose, T., Fries, M., Carpenter, P.K., and Jolliff, B.L. (2010b) Detection of structurally bound hydroxyl in fluorapatite from Apollo mare basalt 15058,128 using TOF-SIMS. American Mineralogist, 95, 1141–1150.Google Scholar

  • McCubbin, F.M., Vander Kaaden, K.E., Tartese, R., Whitson, E.S., Anand, M., Franchi, I.A., Mikhail, S., Ustunisik, G., Hauri, E.H., Wang, J., and Boyce, J.W. (2014) Apatite-melt partitioning in basaltic magmas: The importance of exchange equilibria and the incompatibility of the OH component in halogen-rich apatite. 45th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, abstract 2741.Google Scholar

  • McCubbin, F.M., Boyce, J.W., Srinivasan, P., Santos, A.R., Elardo, S.M., Filiberto, J., Steele, A., and Shearer, C.K. (2016) Heterogeneous distribution of H2O in the Martian interior: Implications for the abundance of H2O in depleted and enriched mantle sources. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 51, 2036–2060.Google Scholar

  • Moore, G., Vennemann, T., and Carmichael, I.S.E. (1998) An empirical model for the solubility of H2O in magmas to 3 kilobars. American Mineralogist, 83, 36–42.Google Scholar

  • Moore, L.R., Gazel, E., Tuohy, R., Lloyd, A.D., Esposito, R., Steele-MacInnis, M., Hauri, E.H., Wallace, P.J., Plank, T., and Bodnar, R.J. (2015) Bubbles matter: An assessment of the contribution of vapor bubbles to melt inclusion volatile budgets. American Mineralogist, 100, 806–823.Google Scholar

  • Nadeau, P.A., Webster, J.D., Mandeville, C.W., Goldoff, B.A., Shimizu, N., and Monteleone, B. (2015) A glimpse into Augustine volcano’s pre-glacial past: insight from a massive rhyolite deposit. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 304, 304–323.Google Scholar

  • Newman, S., and Lowenstern, J.B. (2002) VolatileCalc: A silicate melt-H2O-CO2 solution model written in visual basic for excel. Computers & Geosciences, 28, 597–604.Google Scholar

  • Nowak, M., and Behrens, H. (1995) The speciation of water in haplogranitic glasses and melts determined by in situ near-infrared spectroscopy. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 59, 3345–3450.Google Scholar

  • Pan, Y., and Fleet, M. (2002) Compositions of apatite-group minerals: Substitution mechanisms and controlling factors. In M.J. Kohn, J. Rakovan, and J.M. Hughes, Eds., Phosphates—Geochemical, Geobiological, and Materials Importance, 48, p. 13–49. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, Virginia.Google Scholar

  • Patel, P.N. (1980) Magnesium calcium hydroxylapatite solid solutions. Journal of Inorganic Nuclear Chemistry, 42, 1129–1132.Google Scholar

  • Patiño Douce, A.E., and Roden, M.F. (2006) Apatite as a probe of halogen and water fugacities in the terrestrial planets. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70, 3173–3196.Google Scholar

  • Patiño Douce, A.E., Roden, M.F., Chaumba, J., Fleisher, C., and Yogodzinski, G. (2011) Compositional variability of terrestrial mantle apatites, thermodynamic modeling of apatite volatile contents, and the halogen and water budgets of planetary mantles. Chemical Geology, 288, 14–31.Google Scholar

  • Peng, G.Y., Luhr, J.F., and McGee, J.J. (1997) Factors controlling sulfur concentrations in volcanic apatite. American Mineralogist, 82, 1210–1224.Google Scholar

  • Piccoli, P.M. (1992) Apatite chemistry in felsic magmatic systems. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland.Google Scholar

  • Piccoli, PM., and Candela, PA. (1994) Apatite in felsic rocks; a model for the estimation of initial halogen concentrations in the Bishop Tuff (Long Valley) and Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (Sierra Nevada Batholith) magmas. American Journal of Science, 294, 92–135.Google Scholar

  • ——— (2002) Apatite in igneous systems. In M.J. Kohn, J. Rakovan, and J.M. Hughes, Eds., Phosphates-Geochemical, Geobiological, and Materials Importance, 48, p. 255–292. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, Virginia.Google Scholar

  • Roman, D.C., Cashman, K.V., Gardner, C.A., Wallace, P.A., and Donovan, J.J. (2006) Storage and interaction of compositionally heterogeneous magmas from the 1986 eruption of Augustine volcano, Alaska. Bulletin of Volcanology, 68, 240–254.Google Scholar

  • Sarafian, A.R., Roden, M.F., and Patino-Douce, A.E. (2013) The volatile content of Vesta: Clues from apatite in eucrites. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 48, 2135–2154.Google Scholar

  • Shinohara, H. (1994) Exsolution of immiscible vapor and liquid phases from a crystallizing silicate melt: implications for chlorine and metal transport. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 58, 5215–5221.Google Scholar

  • Shinohara, H., Ilyama, J.T., and Matsuo, S. (1989) Partition of chlorine compounds between silicate melt and hydrothermal solutions: Partition of NaCl-KCl. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 53, 2617–2630.Google Scholar

  • Signorelli, S., and Carroll, M.R. (2000) Solubility and fluid-melt partitioning of Cl in hydrous phonolite melts. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 64, 2851–2862.Google Scholar

  • Stock, M.J., Humphreys, M.C.S., Smith, V.C., Johnson, R.D., and Pyle, D.M. (2015) Apatite as magmatic volatile probe: quantifying the mechanisms and rates of EPMA-induced halogen migration. American Mineralogist, 100, 281–293.Google Scholar

  • Stock, M.J., Humphreys, M.C.S., Smith, V.C., Isaia, R., and Pyle, D.M. (2016) Late-stage volatile saturation as a potential trigger for explosive volcanic eruptions. Nature Geoscience, .CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Stormer, J.C., Pierson, M.L., and Tacker, R.C. (1993) Variation of F and Cl X-ray intensity due to anisotropic diffusion in apatite during electron microprobe analysis. American Mineralogist, 78, 641–648.Google Scholar

  • Symonds, R.B., Rose, W.I., Gerlach, T.M., Briggs, P.H., and Harmon, R.S. (1990) Evaluation of gases, condensates, and SO2 emissions from Augustine volcano, Alaska: the degassing of a Cl-rich volcanic system. Bulletin Volcanology, 52(5), 355–374.Google Scholar

  • Tacker, R.C. (2004) Hydroxyl ordering in igneous apatite. American Mineralogist, 89, 1411–1421.Google Scholar

  • Tappen, C., Webster, J., Mandeville, C., and Roderick, D. (2009) Petrology and geochemistry of ca. 2100–1000 a.b.p. magmas of Augustine volcano, Alaska, based on analysis of prehistoric pumiceous tephra. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 183, 42–62, .CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Tartese, R., Anand, M., Barnes, J.J., Starkey, N.A., Franchi, I.A., and Sano, Y. (2013) The abundance, distribution, and isotopic composition of hydrogen in the Moon as revealed by basaltic lunar samples: implications for the volatile inventory of the Moon. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 122, 58–74.Google Scholar

  • Tartese, R., Anand, M., McCubbin, F.M., Elardo, S.M., Shearer, C.K., and Franchi, I.A. (2014) Apatites in lunar KREEP basalts: The missing link to understanding the H isotope systematics of the Moon. Geology, 42, 363–366.Google Scholar

  • Vander Kaaden, K.E., McCubbin, F.M., Whitson, E.S., Hauri, E.H., and Wang, J. (2012) Partitioning of F, Cl, and H2O between apatite and a synthetic Shergottite liquid (QUE 94201) at 1.0 GPa and 990–1000°C. 43rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, abstract 1247.Google Scholar

  • Wallace, P.J., Kamenetsky, V.S., and Cervantes, P. (2015) Melt inclusion CO2 contents, pressures of olivine crystallization, and the problem of shrinkage bubbles. American Mineralogist, 100, 787–794.Google Scholar

  • Webster, J.D. (1992) Water solubility and chlorine partitioning in Cl-rich granitic systems: Effects of melt composition at 2 kbar and 800°C. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 56, 679–687.Google Scholar

  • Webster, J.D., and Mandeville, C.W. (2007) Fluid immiscibility in volcanic systems. In A. Leibscher and C. Heinrich, Eds., Fluid-Fluid Equilibria in the Crust, 65, p. 313–362. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, Virginia.Google Scholar

  • Webster, J.D., and Rebbert, C.R. (1998) Experimental investigation of H2O and Cl solubilities in F-enriched silicate liquids: implications for volatile saturation of topaz rhyolite magmas. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 132, 198–207.Google Scholar

  • Webster, J.D., Tappen, C., and Mandeville, C. (2009) Partitioning behavior of chlorine and fluorine in the system apatite-melt-fluid; II, Felsic silicate systems at 200 MPa. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 3, 559–581, .CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Webster, J.D., Mandeville, C., Goldoff, B., Coombs, M., and Tappen, C. (2010) Augustine Volcano; the influence of volatile components in magmas erupted A.D. 2006 to 2,100 years before present. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 383–423.Google Scholar

  • Webster, J.D., Goldoff, B., and Shimizu, N. (2011) COHS fluids and granitic magma: how S partitions and modifies CO2 concentrations of fluid-saturated felsic melt at 200 MPa. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 162, 849–865.Google Scholar

  • Webster, J.D., Piccoli, P., and Goldoff, B.A. (2012) Resolving histories of magmatic volatiles in fluids and silicate melts as a function of pressure, temperature, and melt composition through apatite geochemistry. EOS, abstract V21D-02.Google Scholar

  • Webster, J.D., Sintoni, M.F., Goldoff, B., De Vivo, B., and Shimizu, N. (2014) C-O-H-S-Cl-F volatile component solubilities and partitioning in phonolitic-trachytic melts and aqueous-carbonic vapor ± saline liquid at 200 MPa. Journal of Petrology, 55(11), 2217–2248.Google Scholar

  • Webster, J.D., Vetere, F., Botcharnikov, R.E., Goldoff, B., McBirney, A., and Doherty, A.L. (2015) Experimental and modeled chlorine solubilities in aluminosilicate melts at 1 to 7000 bars and 700 to 1250°C: Applications to magmas of Augustine Volcano, Alaska. American Mineralogist, 100, 522–535.Google Scholar

  • Wolf, M.B., and London, D. (1994) Apatite dissolution into peraluminous haplogranitic melts: An experimental study of solubilities and mechanisms. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 58, 4127–4145.Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2016-02-28

Accepted: 2016-08-23

Published Online: 2017-01-03

Published in Print: 2017-01-01

Citation Information: American Mineralogist, Volume 102, Issue 1, Pages 61–74, ISSN (Online) 1945-3027, ISSN (Print) 0003-004X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2138/am-2017-5746.

Export Citation

© 2017 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston.

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in