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American Mineralogist

Journal of Earth and Planetary Materials

Ed. by Baker, Don / Xu, Hongwu / Swainson, Ian

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 2.631

CiteScore 2018: 2.55

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 1.355
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.103

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Volume 102, Issue 10


Previously unknown mineral-nanomineral relationships with important environmental consequences: The case of chromium release from dissolving silicate minerals

Michael Schindler / Debora Berti
  • NanoEarth, Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, U.S.A.
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Michael F. Hochella Jr.
  • Department of Geosciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, U.S.A.
  • Geosciences Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, U.S.A.
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-10-02 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2138/am-2017-6170


Risk assessments that take into account the formation of environmentally dangerous hexavalent chromium in Cr-containing mine tailings, and associated soils and sediments, require an understanding of the occurrence and speciation of Cr in silicate minerals and glasses. Silicates are more soluble and generally more susceptible to weathering than the refractory mineral chromite, the principal ore mineral of Cr. Studies at the nanoscale using a combination of advanced sample preparation via microtoming and focused ion beam techniques, in combination with state-of-the art analytical transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, reveal the occurrence of chromite nanoparticles held within clinochlore and lizardite grains in chromitite ore (an igneous cumulate consisting primarily of chromite) from the Black Thor Chromium deposit in Northern Ontario, Canada, and the Mistake Mine, Fresno County, California, U.S.A., respectively. Nanoscale examinations of altered chromitite ore samples from the Black Thor deposit after dissolution experiments in sulfuric acid-bearing solutions of pH 2.5 show that clinochlore alters to amorphous silica depleted in chromite nanoparticles. This observation suggests the release of chromite nanoparticles rather than Cr3+ aqueous species during the weathering of chromite-bearing silicate minerals. This will in turn have an impact on the environmental behavior of Cr3+ and its potential oxidation to Cr6+. The formation of Craq6+ species in this case will require either the initial dissolution of the nanoparticles or the oxidation of Cr3+ species on the surface of the nanoparticles, either process being a rate limiting step in the formation of Craq6+ species.

Keywords: Chromite; nanoparticles; silicates; clinochlore; lizardite; California; Black Thor deposit; Ontario; Nanominerals and Mineral Nanoparticles

Special collection information can be found at http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/AmMin/special-collections.html.

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About the article

Received: 2017-04-24

Accepted: 2017-07-15

Published Online: 2017-10-02

Published in Print: 2017-10-26

Citation Information: American Mineralogist, Volume 102, Issue 10, Pages 2142–2145, ISSN (Online) 1945-3027, ISSN (Print) 0003-004X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2138/am-2017-6170.

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© 2017 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston.

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