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Advances in Nonlinear Analysis

Editor-in-Chief: Radulescu, Vicentiu / Squassina, Marco

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Existence of a bound state solution for quasilinear Schrödinger equations

Yan-Fang Xue
  • School of Mathematics and Statistics, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715; and College of Mathematics and Information Sciences, Xin-Yang Normal University, Xinyang, Henan 464000, P. R. China
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/ Chun-Lei TangORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6911-3597
Published Online: 2017-05-11 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/anona-2016-0244


In this article, we establish the existence of bound state solutions for a class of quasilinear Schrödinger equations whose nonlinear term is asymptotically linear in N. After changing the variables, the quasilinear equation becomes a semilinear equation, whose respective associated functional is well defined in H1(N). The proofs are based on the Pohozaev manifold and a linking theorem.

Keywords: Quasilinear Schrödinger equation; asymptotically linear; barycenter; linking; Pohozaev manifold

MSC 2010: 35J62; 35J20; 35B09

1 Introduction and main result

In the present paper, we consider a class of quasilinear Schrödinger equations of the form


where W:N is a given potential, N3, κ is a positive constant, and l, ρ are real functions. Corresponding to various types of nonlinear terms ρ, this problem appears naturally in different mathematical physical models; see [28, 23, 21] for an explanation. Here we focus on the case ρ(s)=s, κ=1. As we all know, a standing wave of (1.1) is a solution of the form ψ(t,x)=exp(-iEt)u(x), E, and consequently u(x) satisfies the following equation:


where V(x)=W(x)-E is the new potential and g(u)=l(u2)u is the new nonlinear term. The main purpose of this paper is to deal with the existence of solutions for equation (1.2). This kind of problem has been studied by many authors; see [28, 23, 21, 3, 6, 22, 11, 10, 20, 26, 31, 24, 32, 27, 9, 7, 25, 13, 8, 30] and the references therein.

In [28, 23], by using a constrained minimization argument, a positive ground state solution has been proved for equation (1.2) with g(u)=λ|u|q-1u, 4q+1<22*, where 2*=2N/(N-2) is the Sobolev critical exponent. The case 4q+1<22* is called subcritical growth; there are many articles that deal with this class of problem (see [28, 23, 21, 3, 6, 22, 11, 10, 20, 26, 31]). In [22], the existence of both positive and sign-changing ground states of soliton-type solutions were established via the Nehari method. Then by a change of variables, the quasilinear problem is transformed into a semilinear one; see [21] for an Orlicz space framework and [6] for a Sobolev space frame. Recently, a perturbation method was developed in [25] to deal with equation (1.2), which can be applied to more general quasilinear Schrödinger equations (see also [20]).

For the critical case, we would like to mention [32, 27, 9, 26, 7, 25, 13, 8, 30] and the references therein. It seems that Moameni [27] first studied the critical case when the potential V is radial and satisfies some geometric conditions. Do Ó, Miyagaki and Soares [9] obtained a positive classical solution by using the concentration compactness principle of Lions [19]. He and Li [13] obtained the existence, concentration and multiplicity of weak solutions by employing the minimax theorems and Ljusternik–Schnirelmann theory.

In recent years, the use of the Pohozaev manifold was shown very effective when treading nonlinearities which do not satisfy the Ambrosetti–Rabinowitz condition and the monotonicity condition; see [16, 5, 14, 15, 4]. Lehrer and Maia [16] employed the minimization methods restricted to the Pohozaev manifold to obtain the existence of positive solutions for the asymptotically linear case. Later in [5], Carrião, Lehrer and Miyagaki extended the result given in [16] to more general quasilinear equations. Motivated by [16, 5, 17], we consider equation (1.2) with the nonlinear term g(u) being nonhomogeneous and asymptotically linear at infinity. We will use the linking theorem together with the barycenter function restricted to the Pohozaev manifold associated to our problem.

The main obstacle in finding a solution of equation (1.2) is due to the influence of the quasilinear and nonconvex term Δ(u2)u. The other difficulty is the possible lack of compactness due to the unboundedness of the domain. We will employ an argument developed in [6] to overcome the first difficult and a splitting lemma to conquer the second one.

We suppose that V satisfies the following assumptions:

  • (V1)


  • (V2)

    lim|x|V(x)=V<1, V(x)>V>0 for all xN;

  • (V3)

    (V(x),x)0 for all xN, and the strict inequality holds on a subset of positive Lebesgue measure of N;

  • (V4)

    NV(x)+(V(x),x)NV for all xN;

  • (V5)

    xHV(x)xN+(V(x),x)0 for all xN, where HV is the Hessian matrix of the function V.

We assume the following conditions on the function g:

  • (g1)

    gC1(+,+) and lims0+g(s)s=0;

  • (g2)


  • (g3)

    Q(s):=14g(s)s-G(s)>0 and limsQ(s)=+, where G(s)=0sg(t)𝑑t.

We employ an argument developed in [6] to introduce a variational framework associated with equation (1.2). We observe that equation (1.2) is formally the Euler–Lagrange equation associated with the energy functional


We make a change of variables v:=f-1(u), where f is defined by


After the change of variables from J, we obtain the following functional:


Then I(v)=J(u)=J(f(v)) and I is well defined on H1(N), IC1(H1(N),) under the hypotheses (V1), (V2) and (g1)–(g3). Moreover, we observe that if v is a critical point of the functional I, then the function u=f(v) is a solution of equation (1.2) (see [6]).

The critical points of I are weak solutions of the problem


We can demonstrate that


for all v,φH1(N). Each solution of equation (1.3) satisfies γ(v)=0, where


We define the Pohozaev manifold associated with equation (1.3) by


Let c be the min-max mountain pass level for the functional I given by




Under the previous hypotheses on V and g, we have the following nonexistence result.

Theorem 1.1.

Suppose that (V1)(V5) and (g1)(g3) are satisfied. Then p:=infvPI(v) is not a critical level for the functional I. In particular, the infimum p is not achieved.

Consider now also the limiting problem


Its associated energy functional is denoted by I.


Each solution of equation (1.4) satisfies the following Pohozaev identity:


We define the Pohozaev manifold associated with equation (1.4) by

𝒫:={vH1(N):v0,v satisfies (1.5)},

and p:=infv𝒫I(v).

We say that a solution vH1(N) of equation (1.4) is a least energy solution if and only if I(v)=m, where

m=inf{I(v):vH1(N){0} is a solution of (1.4)}.

We define


as well as the mountain pass min-max level


Using a method similar to the one in [15], we can deduce that c=m=p.

Now we can state our main existence result.

Theorem 1.2.

Suppose that (V1)(V5) and (g1)(g3) are satisfied and the following facts hold:

  • (1)

    gLip(+,+) ;

  • (2)

    V(x)-V is sufficiently small;

  • (3)

    the least energy level c of equation ( 1.4 ) is an isolated radial critical level for I or equation ( 1.4 ) admits a unique positive solution which is radially symmetric about some point.

Then equation (1.2) admits a positive solution whose energy is above c.

Remark 1.3.

These results extend the corresponding results in [17] to the more general quasilinear case. The framework employed and ideas of the proofs for our main results are close to those found in [17]. However, some technical details in this paper are different from those in [17].

Remark 1.4.

For the case of nonlinearities g(u)=|u|p-1u, uniqueness properties of ground state solutions of equation (1.2) were recently proved in [1, 12, 29, 2], so assumption of Theorem 1.2 (3) is expected to be fulfilled.

Example 1.5.

Let V(x)=a+b(1+|x|2)-c, where 0<a<1, 0<cN-12 and b>0 is small enough. Then




We can see by a computation that V(x) satisfies all conditions in Theorem 1.2.

Remark 1.6.

Conditions (g1) and (g2) imply that given ε>0 and 3q22*, there exists a positive constant Cε=C(ε,q) such that

G(s)ε2|s|2+Cε|s|qfor all s.(1.6)

We also obtain the estimate

g(s)ε|s|+Cε|s|q-1for all s.

Remark 1.7.

Since we are looking for positive solutions, we set g(s)=0 for all s<0. Let v be a critical point of I. Taking φ=-v-, we have


Since f(v)(-v-)0, we get




Hence we may conclude that v-=0 a.e. in N and v=v+0. As u=f(v), we conclude that u is a nonnegative solution for equation (1.2).


In this paper, we use the following notations:

  • H1(N) is the usual Hilbert space endowed with the norm


  • Ls(N) is the usual Banach space endowed with the norm

    uss=N|u|s𝑑xfor all s[1,+).

  • u=esssupxN|u(x)| denotes the usual norm in L(N).

  • Br(y)={xN:|x-y|<r}, Br={xN:|x|<r}.

  • u+=max{u,0}, u-=max{-u,0}.

  • |Ω| denotes the Lebesgue measure of the set Ω.

  • C,Cε,C1,C2, denote various positive constants whose exact value is inessential.

2 Some preliminary results

In this section, we first summarize the properties of f, which have been proved in [6, 10].

Lemma 2.1.

The function f satisfies the following properties:

  • (1)

    f is uniquely defined, C and invertible;

  • (2)

    |f(t)|1 for all t ;

  • (3)

    |f(t)||t| for all t ;

  • (4)

    f(t)/t1 as t0 ;

  • (5)

    f(t)/t21/4 as t ;

  • (6)

    f(t)/2tf(t)f(t) for all t>0 ;

  • (7)

    |f(t)|21/4|t|1/2 for all t ;

  • (8)

    f(t)1 as t0 ;

  • (9)

    there exists a positive constant C such that |f(t)|C|t| for |t|1 and |f(t)|C|t|1/2 for |t|1 ;

  • (10)

    |f(t)f(t)|1/2 for all t.

Lemma 2.2.

The functional γ and the Pohozaev manifold P satisfy the following properties:

  • (1)

    {v0} is an isolated point of γ-1({0}) ;

  • (2)

    𝒫 is a closed set;

  • (3)

    𝒫 is a C1 manifold;

  • (4)

    there is a σ>0 such that v>σ for all v𝒫.


(1) Thanks to Lemma 2.1 (9), we can deduce that there is C1>0 such that


By (V4), (1.6), (2.1), Lemma 2.1 (3), (7), and the Sobolev inequality, we have


where S is the best Sobolev constant of the embedding 𝒟1,2(N)L2*(N) and


by taking ε>0 sufficiently small. Let 0<ρ<1 such that ρ2*<C2ρ2/(2C3); then if v=ρ, we have


(2) The functional γ(v) is a C1 functional, thus 𝒫{0}=γ-1({0}) is a closed subset. Moreover, {v0} is an isolated point in γ-1({0}) and the assertion follows.

(3) It follows from Lemma 2.1 (6) and (g3) that


Since v𝒫, we have


Hence we can deduce that


Combining this with (2.2), Lemma 2.1 (6) and (V4), we have γ(v)v<0 if v𝒫. This shows that 𝒫 is a C1 manifold.

(4) Since 0 is an isolated point in γ-1({0}), there must be a ball vσ which does not intersect 𝒫 and the assertion is proved. ∎

Lemma 2.3.

Assume (V1), (V5) and (g1) hold. Then P is a nature constraint for the functional I.


Let v𝒫 be a critical point of I|𝒫. By the theorem of Lagrange multipliers, there exists a μ such that I(v)+μγ(v)=0. The proof is complete as soon as we show that μ=0. Evaluating the linear functional above at v𝒫, we obtain




This expression is associated with the equation


which can be rewritten as


Each solution of equation (2.4) satisfies γ~(v)=0, where


Recalling that v𝒫, and substituting γ(v)=0 in the equation above, we get


Since v is a solution of equation (2.4), it satisfies γ~(v)=0. This yields


From (V5) we get that, if μ<0, the right-hand side of the above equation is nonnegative, while the left-hand side is negative. If μ>0, one gets the same contradiction. Hence μ=0. ∎

3 Proof of Theorem 1.1

In this section, we apply ideas similar to those employed in [16, 4, 17]. Set k(s):=g(f(s))f(s)-Vf(s)f(s); then equation (1.4) becomes


Since equation (3.1) is a semilinear equation, we can use the conclusions in [16, 17]. Let


then we can get the following lemmas. The proof of these lemmas can be found in [16]; we omit them.

Lemma 3.1.

Assume that vH1(RN) and RNK(v)𝑑x>0. Then there exist unique t1>0 and t2>0 such that v(/t1)P and v(/t2)P.

If vP, then there exists tv>0 such that v(/tv)P and tv<1.

If wP, then there exists tw>0 such that w(/tw)P and tw>1.

Lemma 3.2.

Let Ω={vH1(RN):v0,RNK(v)𝑑x>0}. Then the function t1:ΩR+ given by vt1(v) such that v(/t1(v))P is continuous.

Lemma 3.3.

Let vP. Then for any yRN, we have v(-y)P. Moreover, there exists ty>1 such that


Lemma 3.4.

There holds supyRNty:=t¯<+ and t¯>1.

Lemma 3.5.

There exists a real number σ^>0 such that infvPv2σ^.

Lemma 3.6.

There holds p=infvPI(v)>0 and p=c.

Proof of Theorem 1.1.

Arguing by contradiction, we suppose that there is vH1(N) such that I(v)=p and I(v)=0. Then v𝒫. By Lemma 3.1, there exists tv>0 such that v(/tv)𝒫 and tv<1. From (2.3) and (V3) we deduce that


which is a contradiction to Lemma 3.6. ∎

4 Proof of Theorem 1.2

This section is dedicated to proving the existence of a positive solution for equation (1.3). By the previous results, we should search for solutions which have energy levels above c. Similarly to what was done in [16, 17], we start by showing that the min-max levels of the mountain pass theorem for the functionals I and I are equal.

Lemma 4.1.

There holds c=c=p.

The proof is analogous to the proofs of [16, Lemmas 4.1 and 4.2]; we omit it.

Lemma 4.2.

For every ζΓ, there exists s(0,1) such that ζ(s) intersects P.


By the proof of Lemma 2.2 (1), we learn that there exists 0<ρ<1 such that γ(v)>0 if 0<v<ρ. Furthermore, we observe that


It follows from (V3) that


Therefore, if ζΓ, we have γ(ζ(0))=0 and γ(ζ(1))<NI(ζ(1))<0. Since I(ζ(1))<0, we conclude that there exists s(0,1) such that γ(ζ(s))=0 for which ζ(s)>ρ. The function ζ(s) satisfies ζ(s)𝒫, which shows that every path ζΓ intersects 𝒫. ∎

Lemma 4.3.

There exists a (C)c sequence {vn}H1(RN) where


The proof of Lemma 4.3 can be found in [16] (see also [17, 18]).

Lemma 4.4.

If {vn} is a (C)d sequence with d>0, then it has a bounded subsequence.


First of all, we observe that if a sequence {vn}H1(N) satisfies


for some constant C4>0, then the sequence {vn} is bounded in H1(N). For that, we simply need to demonstrate that Nvn2𝑑x is bounded. In fact, by Lemma 2.1 (9) and (V2), we observe that


Moreover, by the Sobolev inequality and Lemma 2.1 (9), one deduces


Hence there is a constant C6>0 such that


Therefore, it remains to show that


is bounded.

Let {vn}H1(N) be an arbitrary Cerami sequence for I at level d>0, that is,




and for any φH1(N),




from Lemma 2.1 (6), we get φn22vn2 and


Thus there exists a constant C7>0 such that φnC7vn. Recalling that {vn}H1(N) is a Cerami sequence, we get


Computing (4.1) - 14(4.2), we get


Thanks to (2.2), we get


Denote wn=f(vn); then |vn|2=(1+2wn2)|wn|2. We can rewrite (4.1) and (4.3) as follows:




From (4.5) and (V2) we can see that {wn} is bounded in H1(N). It follows from (1.6) that


By the above inequality and (4.4), one has




Lemma 4.5 (Splitting (see [33])).

Let {vn}H1(RN) be a bounded sequence such that


Then there exists (if necessary, replace {vn} by a subsequence) a solution v¯ of equation (1.3), a number kN{0}, k functions v1,v2,,vk and k sequences of points {ynj}RN, 1jk, satisfying the following properties:

  • (1)

    vnv¯ in H1(N) or

  • (2)

    vj are nontrivial solutions of equation ( 1.4 );

  • (3)

    |ynj| and |ynj-yni|, ij ;

  • (4)

    vn-i=1kvi(x-yni)v¯ ;

  • (5)


Corollary 4.6.

If I(vn)c and (1+vn)I(vn)0, then either {vn} is relatively compact or the splitting lemma holds with k=1 and v¯=0.

Let us set

c:=inf{c>c:c is a radial critical value of I}

Then we have the following lemma.

Lemma 4.7.

Assume that c is an isolated radial critical level for I. Then c>c and I satisfies condition (3) at level d(c,min{c,2c}). Assume now that the limiting equation (1.4) admits a unique positive radial solution. Then I satisfies condition (3) at level d(c,2c).

The proof is analogous to [18, Lemma 5.9]; we omit it.

Lemma 4.8.

If I(vn)d>0 and {vn}P, then the sequence {vn} is bounded.


Since I(vn)d>0 and {vn}𝒫, we get


where we also used (V3). Therefore vn2 is bounded. By the Sobolev inequality, the sequence vn2* is also bounded.

It follows from (V2), (1.6), (2.1), and Lemma 2.1 (3) and (7) that


Since vn2 and vn2* are bounded, vn2 is bounded as well. Hence {vn} is bounded in H1(N). ∎

Definition 4.9.

Define the barycenter function of a given function uH1(N){0} by setting


with μ(u)L(N) and μ is a continuous function. Subsequently, take


It follows that u^C0(N). Now we define the barycenter of u by


Then β(u) is well defined since u^ has compact support.

The function β(u) satisfies the following properties:

  • (1)

    β is a continuous function in H1(N){0};

  • (2)

    if u is radial, then β(u)=0;

  • (3)

    if yN is given and if we define uy(x):=u(x-y), then β(uy)=β(u)+y.

We shall also need the following lemma.

Lemma 4.10.

Assume that {un},{vn}H1(RN) are such that un-vn0 and I(vn)0 as n, where {vn} is bounded. Then I(un)0 as n.


We simply observe that


thus by Lemma 2.1 (10) we have


Since gLip(+,+), we find that there is a constant C9>0 such that

|g(s)-g(t)|C9|s-t|for all s,t.



where we also used the mean value theorem, Lemma 2.1 (2) and (3) and (4.6). Hence, by using the Hölder inequality, one has

N|(g(f(un))f(un)-g(f(vn))f(vn))φ|𝑑xC9N|un-vn||φ|𝑑x+2C9N|vn||vn-un||φ|𝑑xC9un-vn2φ2+2C9vnφ2vn-un20(as un-vn0).(4.7)

Since the function f(s)f(s) is continuous and V(x) satisfies (V2), we can conclude that

NV(x)((f(un)f(un)-f(vn)f(vn))φdx0(as un-vn0).(4.8)

We also find that

N(un-vn)φdx0(as un-vn0).(4.9)

It follows from (4.7), (4.8) and (4.9) that

I(un)-I(vn),φ=N(un-vn)φdx+NV(x)((f(un)f(un)-f(vn)f(vn))φdx-N(g(f(un))f(un)-g(f(vn))f(vn))φ𝑑x0(as un-vn0).

Hence I(un)0 as n. ∎

We define

b:=inf{I(v):v𝒫 and β(v)=0}.

It is clear that bc; moreover, we have the following lemma.

Lemma 4.11.

There holds b>c.


Suppose b=c. By the definition of b, there is a minimizing sequence

{vn}{vH1(N):v𝒫 and β(v)=0}

such that I(vn)b>0. By Lemma 4.8, {vn} is bounded. Since b=c=p by Lemma 4.1, {vn} is also a minimizing sequence of I on 𝒫. By Ekeland’s variational principle [33, Theorem 8.5], there is another sequence {v~n}𝒫 such that I(v~n)p, I|𝒫(v~n)0 and v~n-vn0 as n. Now we prove that I(v~n)0 as n. Indeed, if I(v~n) does not go to zero, that means there exist ε0>0 and a subsequence denoted also by v~n such that I(v~n)>ε0. Arguing as in the proof of Lemma 4.10, we can deduce that there is a positive constant C10 such that

|I(v~n)-I(v),φ|C10v~n-vφfor all v,φH1(N).

Thus, if




This yields


For δ~>0 sufficiently small, we have λ:=ε0-δ~>0, and for all vB3δ(v~n), one has I(v)>λ. Now let ε:=min{p/2,(λδ)/8} and S:={v~n}. By [33, Lemma 2.3], there is a deformation η on the level p, taking all the points of Sδ to the level p-ε.

I(η(1,u))I(u)for all uH1(N).

Moreover, for n sufficiently large,


because {v~n} is a minimizing sequence, I(v~n)p+ε/2, for n sufficiently large, and since {v~n}𝒫, we have


On the other hand, ζ0(t):=η(1,v~n(/Mt)) is a path in Γ for M and n large enough, hence


which is a contradiction to p=c, provided by Lemma 4.1; hence I(v~n)0 as n. By Lemma 4.10, we get I(vn)0 as n. Hereafter, the sequence {vn} satisfies the assumptions of Corollary 4.6. Since p=c and p is not attained by Theorem 1.1, the splitting lemma holds with k=1. This yields


where ynN, |yn| and v1 is a solution of equation (1.4). Making a translation, we obtain


Calculating the barycenter function on both sides, we have


where the first equality comes from property (3) of the barycenter function β and the second one due to the continuity of β. Since β(vn)=0, |yn| and β(v1(x))=0, we arrive at a contradiction, yielding b>c. ∎

Let us consider the positive, radially symmetric, ground state solution wH1(N) of equation (1.4). We define the operator Π:N𝒫 by


where ty is the real number t which projects w(-y) onto the Pohozaev manifold 𝒫. Since ty is unique and ty(w(-y)) is a continuous function of w(-y), we have that Π is a continuous function of y.

The following lemma describes some properties of the operator Π; its proof can be found in [16, 17].

Lemma 4.12.

β(Π[y](x))=y and I(Π[y])c as |y|.

Lemma 4.13.

Assume that

  • (V6)

    there holds


    where t¯=supyNty.

Then I(Π[y])<min{c,2c}.


Since I is translation invariant, the maximum of tI(w(/t)) is attained at t=1 and ty>1. It follows from (V6) and Lemma 2.1 (3) that


which concludes the proof. ∎

Remark 4.14.

Replacing (V6) with


yields I(Π[y])<2c.

Definition 4.15.

Let S be a closed subset of a Banach space X and let Q be a submanifold of X with relative boundary Q. We say that S and Q link if the following facts hold:

  • (1)


  • (2)

    for any hC0(X,X) such that hQ=id there holds h(Q)S.

Moreover, if S and Q are as stated above and B is a subset of C0(X,X), then S and Q link with respect to B if (1) and (2) hold for any hB.

Theorem 4.16 (Linking).

Suppose that IC1(X,R) is a functional satisfying the (C) condition. Consider a closed subset SX and a submanifold QX with relative boundary Q. In addition, suppose the following:

  • (1)

    S and Q link;

  • (2)

    α=infuSI(u)>supuQI(u)=α0 ;

  • (3)


If B={hC0(X,X):hQ=id}, then the real number τ=infhBsupuQI(h(u)) defines a critical value of I with τα.

Now we are ready to prove our main existence result.

Proof of Theorem 1.2.

It follows from (V2) that I(v)<I(v) for all vH1(N){0}, hence I(Π[y])<I(Π[y]) for any yN. From Lemma 4.11 and Lemma 4.12 we have b>c and I(Π[y])c as |y|, hence there is ρ¯>0 such that for all ρρ¯,


In order to apply the linking theorem, we take

Q:=Π(Bρ¯¯),S:={vH1(N):v𝒫 and β(v)=0}.

We will show that the conditions of Theorem 4.16 are satisfied.

(1) Since β(Π[y](x))=y, from Lemma 4.12 we have that SQ=, because if vS, then β(v)=0, and if vQ, then β(v)=y0 due to the equality |y|=ρ¯. Now we show that h(Q)S, for any h, where


Given h, let us define T:Bρ¯¯N for T(y)=βhΠ[y]. The function T is continuous, because it is the composition of continuous functions. Moreover, for any |y|=ρ¯, we have that Π[y]Q, thus hΠ[y]=Π[y], because hQ=id. Hence from Lemma 4.12 we have T(y)=y. By the fixed point theorem of Brouwer, we conclude that there exists y~Bρ¯ such that T(y~)=0, which implies h(Π[y~])S. Therefore h(Q)S. From Definition 4.15, we know that S and Q link, i.e. relation (1) is proved.

(2) From the definitions of b and Q and inequality (4.10) we may write


which implies relation (2).

(3) Let us define


Then we have db. Indeed, we have already proved that h(Q)S for all h. If h is fixed, then there exists wS such that w belongs to h(Q), which means that w=h(u) for some uΠ(Bρ¯¯)=Q. Therefore,


This gives


and hence


In particular, it follows that d>c because from Lemma 4.11 we know that b>c. Furthermore, if we take h=id, then using Lemma 4.13, we get


Hence we can deduce that d<min{c,2c}; furthermore, we have d(c,min{c,2c}). Thanks to Lemma 4.7, we get that the (C) condition is satisfied at level d. Also, inequality (4.11) tells us that relation (3) is satisfied.

From (1), (2) and (3) above we can apply the linking theorem and conclude that d is a critical level for the functional I. Hence there exists a nontrivial solution vH1(N) of equation (1.3). Reasoning as usual, because of the hypotheses on g and f, and using the maximum principle, we conclude that v is positive and Theorem 1.2 is proved. ∎


The authors would like to thank the referee for his/her useful suggestions.


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About the article

Received: 2016-11-10

Revised: 2017-02-13

Accepted: 2017-02-20

Published Online: 2017-05-11

Funding Source: National Natural Science Foundation of China

Award identifier / Grant number: 11471267

This paper was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11471267).

Citation Information: Advances in Nonlinear Analysis, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 323–338, ISSN (Online) 2191-950X, ISSN (Print) 2191-9496, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/anona-2016-0244.

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