Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Anthropological Review

The Journal of Polish Anthropological Society

4 Issues per year


CiteScore 2016: 0.71

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.301
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.695

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2083-4594
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Second to fourth digits ratio (2D:4D) and subjective pain experience in tattooing

Sławomir Kozieł / Raja Chakraborty / Aneta Sitek
Published Online: 2013-12-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/anre-2013-0015

Abstract

This aims of this research are to determine if the 2D:4D digit ratio is related to subjective pain experience during tattooing and to examine gender differences therein. The study involved 43 male and 28 female Polish adults recruited from two tattoo salons in Wroclaw and Leszno in Western Poland. These subjects were asked if they felt pain during their tattooing and answers were recorded as ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. The ventral surface lengths of the second and fourth digits of each hand were measured, and analysis of variance was performed to assess significant differences in the 2D:4D ratios of right and left hands and twohand averages between genders and the Yes/ No groups reporting pain experience. Results revealed that although the digit ratios for females had systematically higher values than those in males, differences were not statistically significant. Both sex and subjective pain feeling were significantly associated with 2D:4D ratio in both hands and their average values, while sex and pain experience were independently associated with digit ratio. Subjects who felt pain during tattooing had a significantly lower digit ratio. In conclusion, the study did not support the hypothesis that the lower masculine 2D:4D ratio is associated with a higher pain threshold. Prenatal sex hormonal exposure generating the gender dimorphic 2D:4D index may not predispose the actual feeling of all kinds of pain; in this instance, not in pain associated with tattooing.

Keywords: 2D:4D digit ratio; subjective pain; tattoo

  • Chesterton LS, Barlas P, Foster NE, Baxter GD, Wright CC. 2003. Gender differences in pressure pain threshold in healthy humans. Pain 101: 259-266.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Choi JC, Park SK, Kim Y, Shin Y, Kwon JS, Kim JS, Kim J, Kim SY, Lee SG, Lee MS. 2006. Different brain activation patterns to pain and pain related unpleasantness during the menstrual cycle. Anesthesiology 105: 120-127.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cohen-Bendahan CC, van de Beek C, Berenbaum SA. 2005. Prenatal sex hormone effects on child and adult sex-typed behavior: methods and findings. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 29: 353-384.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Craft RM, Mogil JS, Aloisi AM. 2004. Sex diferences in pain and analgesia: the role of gonadal hormones. Eur J Pain 8: 397-411.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fillingim RB, Edwards RR, Powell T. 1999. The relationship of sex and clinical pain to experimental pain responses. Pain 83: 419-425.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Fillingim RB, Ness TJ. 2000. Sex-related hormonal influences on pain and analgesic responses. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 24: 485-501CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Fillingim RB. 2000. Sex, gender and pain: Women and men are really different. Curr Pain Headache Report 4: 24-30.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fillingim RB. 2000. Sex, Gender, and Pain. Progress in Pain and Research Management Vol. 17 - IASP Press, Seattle.Google Scholar

  • Frot M, Feine JS. Bushnell MC. 2004. Sex differences in painperception and anxiety: A psychophysical study with topical capsaicin. Pain 108: 230-236.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hau M, Dominguez OA, Evrard HC. 2004. Testosterone reduces responsivenessto nociceptive stimuli in a wild bird. Horm Behav 46: 165-170.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hönekopp J, Barthold L, Beier L, Liebert A. 2007. Second to fourth digit length (2D:4D) and adult sex hormone levels: new data and a meta-analytic review. Psychoneuroendocrinology 32: 313-321.PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Keogh E, Mounce C, Brosnan M. 2007. Can a sexually dimorphic index of prenatal hormonal exposure be used to examine cold pressor pain perception in men and women? Eur J Pain 11: 31-236.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Kozieł S, Kretschmer W, Pawlowski B. 2010. Tattoo and piercing as signals of biological quality. Evol Hum Behav 31: 187-192Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Loeser JD, Treede R-D. 2008. The Kyoto protocol of IASP basic pain terminology. Pain 137: 473-477.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Lutchmaya S, Baron-Cohen S, Raggatt P, Knickmeyer R, Manning JT. 2004. 2nd to 4th digit ratios, fetal testosterone and estradiol. Early Hum Devel 77: 23-28.Google Scholar

  • Manning JT, Henzi P, Venkatramana P, Martin S, Singh D. 2003. Second to fourth digit ratio: ethnic differences and family size in English, Indian and South African populations. Ann Hum Biol 30: 579-588.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Manning JT, Scutt D, Wilson J, Lewis-Jones DI. 1998. The ratio of 2nd to4th digit length: a predictor of sperm numbers and concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and oestrogen. Hum Reprod 13: 3000-3004.Google Scholar

  • Manning JT. 2002. Digit Ratio: A Pointer to Fertility, Behaviour and Health. - Rutgers University Press. New Brunswick.Google Scholar

  • Manson JE. 2010. Pain: sex differences and implications for treatment. Metabolism 59: S16-S20.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • McIntyre M, Chapman JF, Lipson SF, Ellison PT. 2007. Index-toring finger ratio (2D:4D) predicts levels of salivary estradiol, but not progesterone, over the menstrual cycle. Am J Hum Biol 19: 434-436.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Mintaze K, Turkan A, Gonca B, Kezban Y, Kadriye A, Dilara K. 2002. A correlation between sex hormone levels and pressure pain threshold and tolerance in healthy women. The Pain Clinic 14: 43-47.Google Scholar

  • Robinson ME, Wise EA, Riley III JL, Atchison JW. 1998. Sex differences in clinical pain: A multisample study. J Clin Psychol Med S 5: 413-423.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Roney JR, Whitham JC, Leoni M, Bellem A, Wielebnowski N, Maestripieri D. 2004. Relative digit lengths and testosterone levels in Guinea baboons. Horm Behav 45: 285-290.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sarlani E, Farooq N, Greenspan JD. 2003. Gender and laterality differences in thermosensation throughout the perceptible range. Pain 106: 9-18.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Schwerdtfeger A, Heer J. 2008. Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) of the right hand is associated with nociception and augmenting-reducing. Pers Indiv Differ 45: 493-497.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Yamamotova A, Benkova M, Pechova K, Rokyta R. 2009. Can second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) predict sensitivity to pain? Act Nerv Super Rediviva 51: 159-162. Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2013-12-01

Published in Print: 2013-06-01


Citation Information: Anthropological Review, ISSN (Online) 2083-4594, ISSN (Print) 1898-6773, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/anre-2013-0015.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Anna Kasielska-Trojan, Piotr Stabryła, and Bogusław Antoszewski
Early Human Development, 2017, Volume 110, Page 25

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in