Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Anthropological Review

The Journal of Polish Anthropological Society

4 Issues per year


CiteScore 2016: 0.71

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.301
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.695

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2083-4594
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Bone Mineral Density in Children From Anthropological and Clinical Sciences: A Review

Bernadette M. Manifold
Published Online: 2014-07-15 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/anre-2014-0011

Abstract

Bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent topic of discussion in the clinical literature in relation to the bone health of both adults and children. However, in archaeological and/ or anthropological studies the role of BMD is often cited as a possible factor in the poor skeletal preservation which can lead to an under-representation of juvenile skeletal remains. During skeletal development and growth throughout childhood and adolescence changes take place in both the size and shape of bones and these changes also result in the increasing of mineral content. BMD can be affected by many factors, which include, age, genetics, sexual maturation, amount of physical activity and dietary calcium. This paper aims to review the clinical and anthropological literature on BMD and discuss the numerous methods of measurement and how the availability of certain methods such as Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) can influence the study of bone density in archaeological skeletal collections and also the future potential for forensic anthropological studies.

Keywords: Juvenile skeletal remains; bone health; bioarchaeology; DEXA; forensic anthropology

References

  • Agarwal SC, Stout SD. 2003. Bone Loss and Osteoporosis: An Anthropological Perspective. Kluwer Academic: New York.Google Scholar

  • Albagha OME, Ralston SH. 2003. Genetic determinants of susceptibility to osteoporosis. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am 32:65-81.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Arabi A, Nabulsi M, Maalouf J, Choucair M, Khalifé H, Vieth R et al. 2004. Bone mineral density by age, gender, pubertal stages, and socioeconomic status in healthy Lebanese children and adolescents. Bone 35(5):1169-79.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Arikcoski P Komulainen J, Voutilainen R, Kröger L, Kröger H. 2002. Lumbar bone mineral density in normal subjects aged 3-6 yrs: a prospective study. Acta Paediatr 91(2):287-91.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bachrach LK, Levine MA, Cowell CT, Show NJ. 2007. Clinical indicators for the use of DXA in paediatrics. In: Sawyer AJ, Bachrach LK, Fung FB, editors. Bone Den-sitometry in Growing Patients: Guidelines for Clinical Practice. Humana Press: Toto-wa New Jersey.Google Scholar

  • Bachrach LK, Hastie T, Wang MC, Narasim-ham B, Marcus R, 1999. Bone mineral acquisition in healthy Asian, Hispanic, Black and Caucasian Youth: A longitudinal study. J Clin Endocr Metab 84(12):4702-12.Google Scholar

  • Bailey DA, McKay HA, Mirwald RL. 1999. A six-year longitudinal study of the relationship of physical activity to bone mineral accrual in growing children. J Bone Miner Res 14(10):1672-78.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Bell LS, Skinner MF, Jones SJ. 1996. The speed of post mortem changes to the human skeleton and its taphonomic significant. Forensic Sci Int 82:129-40.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bennike P, Lewis M, Schutkowski H, Valentin F. 2005. Comparisons of child mortality in two contrasting medieval cemeteries from Denmark. Am J Phys Anthropol 127:73446.Google Scholar

  • Bianchi ML. 2007. Osteoporosis in children and adolescents. Bone 41(2):486-95.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bishop NJ, Dahlenburg SL, Fewtrell MS, Mor-ley R, Lucus A. 1996. Early diet of preterm infants and bone mineralization at age five years. Acta Paediatr 85(2):230-36.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Boaz NT, Behrensmeyer AK. 1976. Hominid taphonomy: transport of human skeletal parts in an artificial fluviatile environment. Am J Phys Anthropol 45(1):53-60.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bonjour JP, Theintz G, Buchs B, Slossman D, Rizzoli R. 1991. Critical years and stages of puberty for spine and femoral bone mass accumulation during adolescence. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 73:555-63.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Bonjour JP, Rizzoli R .1998. Peak bone mass acquisition In: Schoenau E and Matkovic V. Editors. Paediatric Osteology: Prevention of Osteoporosis - A Paediatric Task? Proceedings of the 2nd international workshop on paediatric osteology. Cologne: Elsevier science. 61-81.Google Scholar

  • Boots AM, De Rodder MAJ, Pols HAP, Krenning EP, Muinck Keizer-Schrama SMPF. 1997. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents: relation to puberty, calcium intake and physical activity. Clin Endo Metab 82(1):57-62.Google Scholar

  • Braillon PM, Salle BL, Brunet J, Glorieux FH, Delmas PD, Meunier PJ. 1997. Dual-energy X-ray absorptionmetry measurements of bone mineral content in newborns; validation of a technique. Pediatr Res 32:77-80.Google Scholar

  • Brunton JA, Bayler HS, Atkinson SA. 1993. Validation and application of dual-energy X-ray absorptionmetry to measure bone mass and body composition in small infants. Am J Clin Nutr 58:839-45.Google Scholar

  • Brunton JA, Wilner HA, Atkinson SA. 1997. Improvement in the accuracy of dual-energy X-ray absorptionmetry for the whole body and regional analysis of body composition: validation using piglets and methodological considerations in infants. Pediatr Res 41:590-96.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Burns C, Henderson N. 1936. The influence of age on the mineral constituents of bones of kittens and pups. Biochem J 30:1207-14.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Carlton RR, Adler AM. 2001. Principles of Radiographic Imaging. An Art and a Science. Delmar: Albany, NY.Google Scholar

  • Chan GM. 1993. Growth and bone mineral status of discharged very low birth weight infants fed different formulas or human milk. J Pediatr 123:439-43.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Chan GM, Hess M, Hollis J, Book LS. 1984. Bone mineral status in childhood accidental fractures. Am J Dis Child 138:569-70.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Chappard D, Moquereau M, Mercier P, Gallois Y, Legrand E Basle MF et al. 2004. Ex vivo bone mineral density of the wrist: influence of medullar fat. Bone 34:1023-28.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Cheng JCY, Mahmood A, Hui PW. 1993. Bone mineral content in Chinese children. Hong Kong Medical J. 45(3):209-14.Google Scholar

  • Cooper C, Fall C, Egger P, Hobbs R, Eastell R, Barker D. 1997. Growth in fancy and bone mass in later life. Ann Rheum Dis 56:17-21.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Curate F. 2014. Osteoporosis and paleopa-thology: a review. J Anthrop Sci 92:1-28.Google Scholar

  • Curate F, Albuquerque A, Cunha EM. 2013: Age at death estimation using bone den-sitometry: testing the Fernandez Casillo and Lopez Ruiz method in two documented skeletal samples from Portugal. Forensic Sci Int 226(1):296.e1-296.e6.Google Scholar

  • Currey JD. 2006. Bones: Structure and Mechanics. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

  • Currey J, Butler G. 1975. The mechanical properties of bone tissue in children. J Bone Joint Surg 57-A:810-14.Google Scholar

  • Dent CE. 1973. Keynote address: Problems in metabolic bone disease. In: Frame B, Parfitt AM, Duncan H. Editors. Clinical Aspects of metabolic bone disease. Ex-cerpta Medica, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1-7.Google Scholar

  • Del Rio L, Carrascosa A, Pons F, Gusinyé M, Yests D, Domenech FM. 1994. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in white Mediterranean Spanish children and adolescents: changes related to age, sex and puberty. Pediatr Res 35(3):362-66.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Dequeker J, Nijs J, Verstaeten A, Geudens P Gevers G. 1987. Genetic determinates of bone mineral content at the spine and the radius: A twin study. Bone 8:207-09.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • De Ridder CM. 1998. Bone markers and the increase of bone density in pubertal girls. In: Schoenau E and Matkovic V. Editors. Paediatric Osteology: Prevention of Oste-oporosis-a paediatric task? Proceedings of the 2nd international workshop on paedi-atric osteology. Cologne: Elsevier Science. 81-85.Google Scholar

  • Dickerson J. 1962. The effects of development on the composition of a long bone of the pig, rat, and fowl. Biochem J 82:47-55.Google Scholar

  • Dimitri P Wales JK, Bishop N. 2010. Fat and bone in children: differential effects of obesity on bone size and mass according to fracture history. J Bone Miner Res 25 (2):527-36.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • EFFO and NOF. 1997. Who are candidates for prevention and treatment for osteoporosis? Osteoporos Int 7:1. Ekenman I, Eriksson SAV Lindgren JU. 1995. Bone density in Medieval skeletons. Calcified Tissue Int 56:355-58.Google Scholar

  • Eisman JA. 1999. Genetics of osteoporosis. Endocrine Rev 20:788-804.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • El-Desouki M, Al-Jurayyan N. 1997. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in children and adolescents with osteomala-cia. Eur J Nucl Med 24"202-05.Google Scholar

  • Ergür AT, Erselcan T. 2000. Diagnostic value of bone mineral density measurements in infants with rickets. J Trop Pediatrics 46:124-26.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fall C, Hindermarsh P, Dennison E, Kelling-ray S, Baker D, Cooper C. 1998. Programming of growth hormone secretion and bone mineral density in elderly men: a hypothesis. Clin Endo Metab 83:135-39.Google Scholar

  • Farquharson M, Speller R, Brickley M. 1997. Measuring bone density in archaeological bone using energy dispersive low-angle X-ray scattering techniques. J Archaeol Sci 24:765-72.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Faulkner RA, Bailey DA, Drinkwater DT, Wilkinson AA, Houston CS, McKay HA. 1993. Regional and total body bone mineral content, bone mineral density and total body tissue composition in children 8-16 years of age. Calcified Tissue Int 53:7-12.Google Scholar

  • Faulkner RA, Bailey DA, Drinkwater DT, Mckay HA, Arnold C, Wilkinson AA. 1996. Bone densitometry in Canadian children 8-17 years of age. Calcified Tissue Int 59:344-51.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fernandez Castillo RF, López Ruiz M. 2011. Assessment of age and sex by means of DXA bone densitometry: application in forensic anthropology. Forensic Sci Int 209:53-58.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fewtrell MS. 2003. Bone densitometry in children assessed by dual X-ray absorptionmetry: uses and pitfalls. Arch Dis Child 88:795-98.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fewtrell MS, Bishop NJ, Edmonds CJ, Isaacs EB, Lucas A. 2009. Aluminium exposure from intravenous feeding solutions and later bone health: 15 year follow up of a randomised trial in preterm infants. Pediatrics 24(5): 1372-79.Google Scholar

  • Fleckenstein P, Tranum-Jensen J. 1993. Anatomy in Diagnostic Imaging. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.Google Scholar

  • Foley S, Quinn S, Jones G. 2009. Tracking of bone mass from childhood to adolescence and factors that predict deviation from tracking. Bone 44(5):752-57.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Galloway A, Willey P, Snyder L. 1997. Human bone mineral densities and survival of bone elements: a contemporary sample. In: Haglund WD and Sorg MH. Editors. Forensic Taphonomy: The Post Mortem Fate of Human Remains. Florida: CRC Press. 295-317.Google Scholar

  • Garn SM. 1970. The Earlier Gain and Later Loss of Cortical Bone. Charles C Thomas: Springfield, IL.Google Scholar

  • Genant HK, Grampp S, Glüer CC, Faulkner KG, Jergas M, Engelke K et al. 1994. Universal standardization for dual X-ray absorptionmetry: patient and phantom cross-calibration results. J Bone Miner Res 9:1503-14.Google Scholar

  • Gilsanz V, Gibben DT, Roe TF, Carlson M, Senac MO, Boechat MI, et al. 1988. Vertebral bone density in children: Effect of puberty. Radiology 166:847-50.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gilsanz V, Roe TF, Mora S, Costin G, Goodman WG. 1991. Changes in bone vertebral bone density in black girls and white girls during childhood and puberty. N Engl J Med 32:1597-1600.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gilsanz V, Boechat MI, Roe TF, Loro ML, Say-er JW, Goodman WG. 1994. Gender differences in vertebral body sizes in children and adolescents. Radiology 190:673-77.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gilsanz V, Konvanlikaya A, Costin G, Roe TF, Sayer J, Kaufman F. 1997. Differential effects of gender on the size of bones in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Clin Endo Metab 82:1603-07.Google Scholar

  • Gilsanz V. 1998. Bone density in children: a review of the available techniques and indications. Eur J Radiol 26(2):177-82.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Godfrey K, Walker-Bone K, Robinson S, Taylor P, Shores S, Wheeler Y et al. 2001. Neonatal bone mass: influences of parental birthweight, material smoking, body composition, and activity during pregnancy. J Bone Miner Res 16: 1694-1703.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Goksen D, Darcan S, Coker M, Kose T. 2006. Bone mineral density of healthy Turkish children and adolescence. J Clin Densitom 9(1):84-90.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gonzalez-Reimers E, Velasco-Vazquez J, Ar-nay-De-La-Rosa M, Machado-Calvo M. 2007. Quantitative computerized tomography for the diagnosis of osteopenia in prehistoric skeletal remains. J Archaeol Sci 34:554-61.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Goulding A, Jones IE, Manning PJ. 2000. More broken bones: a 4 year double cohort study of young girls with and without distal forearm fractures. J Bone Miner Res 15:2011-18.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Goulding A, Jones IE, Taylor RW, Williams SM, Manning PJ. 2001. Bone mineral density and body composition in boys with distal forearm fractures: A dual energy x-ray absorphmetry study. J Pediatr 39(1):509-15.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gunnes M, Lehmann EH. 1996. Physical activity and dietary constituents as predictors of forearm cortical and trabecular bone gain in healthy children and adolescents: a prospective study. Acta paediatr 85:19-25.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Guy H, Masset C, Baud CA. 1997. Infant Taphonomy. Int J Osteoarchaeol 7:221-29. Hackett CJ. 1981. Microscopic focal destruction (tunnels) in exhumed bone. Med Sci Law 21:241-65.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hammerl J, Portsch R, Happ J, Frohn J, Hor G. 1990. Osteodensitometric des femurhalses an historischen skeletten. In: Werner R and Mattiass HH. Editors. Osteologie-In-terdisziplinar. Berlin: Springer. 139-42.Google Scholar

  • Handan ALP Zerrin O, Tahir K, Hatice U. 2006. Bone mineral density in malnourished children without rachitic manifestations. Pediatr Int 48:128-31.Google Scholar

  • Hayashi T, Satoh H, Soga T, Tanaka D, Habashi K, Okuyama K. 1996. Evaluation of bone density in newborn infants by computed x-ray densitometry. J Pediatr Gastr Nutr 23(2):130-134.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hartikainen H, Maleta K, Kulmala T, Ashorn P. 2005. Seasonality of gestational weight gain and foetal growth in rural Malawi. East Afr Med J 82(6):294-99.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Heaney RP, Abrams S, Dawson-Hughes B, Looker A, Marcus R, Matkovic V et al. 2000. Peak bone mass. Osteoporos Int 11(12):985-1009.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Holger W, Blimkie CJR, Cowell Ct, Kemp AF, Briody J, Wiebe P et al. 2003. A comparison of bone geometry and cortical density at the mid-femur between prepuberty and young adulthood using magnetic resonance imaging. Bone 33:771-78.Google Scholar

  • Holck P. 2007. Bone mineral densities in the prehistoric, Viking-age and medieval population of Norway. In J Osteoarchaeol 17:199-206.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Horlick M, Thornton J, Wang J, Levine LS, Fe-dun B, Pierson RN. 2000. Bone mineral in prepubertal children; gender and ethnicity. J Bone Miner Res 15:1393-97.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hummert JR. 1983. Bone growth and dietary stress among subadults from Nubia's Batn el Hajar. Am J Phys Anthropol 62:167-76.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hui SL, Gao S, Zhou X-H, Johnson CC, Lu Y, Glüer CC, et al. 1997. Universal standardization of bone density measurements: a method with optimal properties for calibration among several instruments. J Bone Miner Res 12:1463-70.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Janz KF, Eichenberger-Gilmore JM, Levy SM, Letuchy FM, Burns TL, Beck TJ. 2007. Physical activity and femoral neck bone strength during childhood: the Iowa bone development study. Bone 14 (2):216-22.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Jones G, Riley M, Dwyer T. 2000. Breastfeeding in early life and bone mass in prepu-bertal children: a longitudinal study. Osteoporosis Inter 11:146-52.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Jones G and Dwyer T. 1998. Bone mass in prepubertal children: gender difference and the role of physical activity and sunlight exposure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:4274-79PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Jouanny P, Guillemin F, Kuntz C, Jeandel C, Pureel J. 1995. Environmental and genetic factors affecting bone mass similarity of bone density among members of healthy families. Arthritis Rheum 38:61-67.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kanis JA, Johnell O, De Laet C, Johansson H, Oden A, Delmas P et al. 2004. A meta-analysis of previous fracture and subsequent fracture risk. Bone 35:375-82.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kendell A and Willey P. 2013. Crow Creek bone bed commingling: relationship between bone mineral density and minimum number of individuals and its effect on paleodemographic analyses. In: Os-terholtz AJ, Baustian KM and Martin DL. Editors. Commingled and Disarticulated Human Remains: Working Towards Improved Theory, Methods and Data. New York: Springer. 85-104Google Scholar

  • Key L, Carnes D, Cole S, Holtrop M, Bar-Shavit Z, Shapiro F, Arceci R, Steinberg J, Gundberg C, Kahn A, Teitelbaum S, Anast C. 1984. Treatment of congenital osteo-petrosis with high dose calcitriol. N Eng J Med 310:409-15.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Koo WWK, Walters J, Carlson SE. 1995. Postnatal delay in bone mineralization of pre-term (PT) infants. J Bone Miner Res 10:296.Google Scholar

  • Koo WWK, Walter J, Bush AJ, Chesney RW, Carlson SE. 1996. Dual energy X-ray ab-sorptionmetry studies of bone mineral status in newborn infants. J Bone Miner Res 11:997-1002.Google Scholar

  • Koo WWK, Bush AJ, Walters J, Carlson SE. 1998. Postnatal developments of bone mineral status during infancy. J Am Coll Nutr 17(1):65-70.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kurl S, Heinonem K, Länsimies E, Launiala K. 1998. Determinants of bone mineral density in prematurely born children aged 6-7 years. Acta Paediatr 87:650-53.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Landin l, Nilsson BOE. 2008. Forearm bone mineral content in children: Normative data. Acta Paediatr 70(6):919-23.Google Scholar

  • Lee SN, Desai S, Shetty G, Song HR, Lee SH, Hur CY et al. 2007. Bone mineral density of proximal femur and spine in Korean children between 2 and 18 years of age. J Bone Miner Metab 25(6):423-30.Google Scholar

  • Lees B, Molleson T, Arnett TR, Stevenson JC. 1993. Differences in proximal femur bone density over two centuries. The Lancet 341:673-75.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lynnerup N, Von Wowern N. 1997. Bone mineral content in medieval Greenland Norse. Int J Osteoarchaeol 7:235-40.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lynnerup N. 2008. Computed tomography scanning and three-dimensional of mummies and bog bodies. In: Pinhasi R and Mays S. Editors. Advances in Palaeopa-thology. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd. 101-119.Google Scholar

  • Ma DQ, Jones G. 2003. The association between bone mineral density metacarpal morphomety and upper limb fracture in children: a population based case-control study. T Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:1486-91.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Mack PB, O'Brien AT' Smith JM, Bauman AW. 1939. A method for estimating the degree of mineralization of bones from tracing of roentgenograms. Science 89:467.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Manifold BM. 2008. Little people, little bones: bone mineral density in non-adult skeletal remains. Poster presented at the World Archaeological Congress, University College Dublin, Dublin.Google Scholar

  • Manifold BM (Forthcoming) Estimating bone mineral density in non-adult skeletal remains using photodensitometry.Google Scholar

  • Matkovic V, Jelic T, Wardlow GH, Llich JZ, Goel PK, Wright JK et al. 1994. Timing of peak bone mass in Caucasian females and its implications for the prevention of osteoporosis. Inference from a crossectional model. J Clin Invest 93:799-808.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Maynard LM, Guo SS, Chumlea WC, Roche AF, Wisemandle WA, Zeller CM et al. 1998. Total body and regional bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density in children aged 8-18y: fels longitudinal study. Am J Clin Nutr 68:1111-17.Google Scholar

  • Mays S. 1999. Linear and appositional long bone growth in earlier human populations: a case study from medieval England. In: Hoppa RD and Fitzgerald CM. Editors. Human Growth in the Past: Studies from Bones and Teeth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 290-312.Google Scholar

  • Mays S. 2000. Age-dependent cortical bone loss in women from 18th and early 19th century London. Am J Phys Anthropol 112:349-61.Google Scholar

  • Mays S. 2001. Effects of age and occupation on cortical bone in a group of 18th-19th century men. Am J Phys Anthropol 116: 34-44.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Mays S. 2008. Radiography and allied techniques in the palaeopathology of skeletal remains. In: Pinhasi R and Mays S. Editors. Advances in Palaeopathology. Chich-ester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd. 77-100.Google Scholar

  • Mays S, Turner-Walker G, Syversen U. 2006. Osteoporosis in a population from medieval Norway. Am J Phys Anthropol 131: 343-51.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • McEwan JM, Mays S, Blake GM. 2005. The relationship of bone mineral density and growth parameters to stress indicators in a medieval juvenile population. In J Oste-oarchaeol 15:155-163.Google Scholar

  • Miller JZ, Slemenda CW, Meany FJ, Reister TK, Hui S, Johnstone CC. 1991. The relationship of bone mineral density and anthropomorphic variables in healthy male and female children. Bone Miner 14:137-52.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Minton SD, Steichen JJ Tsang RC. 1979. Bone mineral content in term and pre-term appropriate-for-gestational-age-infants. J Pediatr 49(6):1037-42.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Molgaard C, Thomsen BL, Prentice A, Cole TJ, Fleischer Michaelsen K. 1997. Whole body bone mineral content in healthy children and adolescent. Arch Dis Child 79:9-15.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Namgung R, Mimouni F, Campougan BN, Ho ML, Tsang RC. 1992. Low bone mineral content in summer compared with winter-born infants. J Pediatr Gastr Nutr 15:285-88.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Namgung R, Tsang RC, Specker BL, Sierra RL, Ho ML. 1994. Low bone mineral content and high serum osteocalain and 1,25-di-hydryvitamin D in summer versus winter born newborn infants: an early fetal effects? J Pediatr Gastr Nutr 19:220-27.Google Scholar

  • Namgung R, Tsang RC, Sierra RI, Ho ML. 1996. Normal serum indices of bone collagen biosynthesis and degradation in small for gestational age infants. J Pediatr Gastr Nutr 23:224-28CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Namgung R, Tsang RC. 2003. Bone in the pregnant mother and newborn at birth. Clin Chim Acta 333(11):1-11.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Neu CM, Manz F, Ranch F, Merkel A, Schoe-nau E. 2001. Bone densities and bone size at the distal radius in healthy children and adolescents: a study using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Bone 28:227-32.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Nordstrom P, Thorden P, Nordstrom G, Berg-strom E, Lorentzon R. 1995. Bone mass, muscle strength and different body constitutional parameters in adolescent boys with a low or moderate exercise levels. Bone 17:351-56.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Nordstrom P, Nordstrom G, Thorsem K, Lor-entzon P. 1996. Local bone mineral density, muscle strength, and exercise in adolescent boys: a comparative study of two groups with different muscle strength, and exercise levels. Calcified Tissue Inter 58:402-08.Google Scholar

  • Nyati LH, Norris SA, Cameron N, Pettifor JM. 2006. Effects of ethnicity and sex on the growth of the axial and appendicular skeleton of children living in a developing country. Am J Phys Anthropol 130:135-41.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Oliveri MB, Ladizesky M, Martinez L, Alonso A, Somoza J, Mautalen CA. 1991. Mineral metabolism of children in vitamin D deficient area of Argentina. Proceedings of the workshop on vitamin D.Google Scholar

  • Oliveri MB, Cassinelli H, Bergada C, Mau-talen CA. 1991a. Bone mineral density of the spine and radius shaft in children with X-linked hypophosphalemic rickets (XLH) Bone Miner 12(2):91-100Google Scholar

  • Ortner DJ. 2003. Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar

  • Park JN, Kim KH, Lee SS. 2004. A study of factors affecting bone mineral density in children: anthropometric measurements, socioeconomic factors, family history and environmental factors. Korean Journal of Nutrition 37(1):52-60.Google Scholar

  • Peck JJ, Stout SD. 2007. Intraskeletal variability in bone mass. Am J Phys Anthropol 132:89-97.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Pludowski P Jaworski M, Matusik H, Ko-bylinska M, Klimek P, Lorenc RS. 2010. The evaluation of consistency between body composition assessments in pediat-ric population using pencil beam and fan beam dual-energy x-ray absorptiometers. J Clin Densitom 13(1): 84-95.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Pocock NA, Eisman JA, Hopper JL, Yeates MG, Sambrook PN, Eberl S. 1987. Genetic determinates of bone mass in adults. A twin study. J Clin Invest 80:706-10.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Prentice A, Laskey MA, Show J, Cole TJ, Fraser OK. 1990. Bone mineral content of Gambian and British children aged 0-36 months. Bone Miner 10:221-24.Google Scholar

  • Proesmans W, Goos G, Emma F, Geusens P, Nijs J, Dequeker J. 1994. Total bone mineral mass measured with dual photon ab-sorptionmetry in healthy children. Eur J Pediatr 153(11): 807-12.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rauch F, Schoenau E. 1998. Timing of puberty and skeletal development. In: Schoe-nau E and Matkovic V. Editors. Paediatric Osteology: Prevention of Osteoporosis-a Paediatric Task? Proceedings of the 2nd international workshop on paediatric osteology. Cologne: Elsevier Science. 87-94.Google Scholar

  • Rauch F, Schoenau E. 2001. Changes in bone mineral density during childhood and adolescence: an approach based on bone's biological organisation. J Bone Miner Res 16:597-604.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rauch F, Schoenau E. 2002. Skeletal development in premature infants: a review of bone physiology beyond nutritional aspects. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonate Ed 86:F82-F85.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ribero RR, Santos-Ribeiro KD, Guerra-Junior G, de. A. Bairos-Filho A. 2010. Comparison of bone quantity by ultrasound measurements of phalanges between White and Black children living in Parana, Brazil with Europeans. Braz J Med Biol Res 43(10):976-81.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rigo J, De Curtis M, Pieltain C, Nyamugabo K, Senterre J. 1996. Bone mineral density index (BMDI) determined by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in IDM, IUGR, and preterm infants: comparison to intrauterine references values. Paediatr Res 40: A548.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rizzoli R, Bonjour JR. 2004. Dietary protein and bone health. J Bone Miner Res 19: 527-31.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rizzoli R, Bianchi ML, Garabedion M, McKay HA, Moreno LA. 2010. Maximizing bone mineral mass gain during growth for the prevention of fractures in the adolescents and elderly. Bone 46(2):294-305.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Robinson S, Nicholson RA, Pollard AM, O'Connor TP. 2003. An evaluation of nitrogen porosimetry as a technique for predicting taphonomic durability in animal bone. J Archaeol Sci 30:391-403.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ruff C. 2003. Growth in bone strength, body size, and muscle size in a juvenile longitudinal sample. Bone 33:317-29.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sawyer AJ, Bachrach LK. 2007. Rationale for bone densitometry in childhood and adolescence. In: Sawyer AJ, Bachrach LK and Fung FB. Editors. Bone Densitometry in growing Patients: Guidelines for Clinical Practice. Totowa NJ: Humana Press In. 1-13.Google Scholar

  • Schanler RJ, Burns PA, Abrams SA, Garza C. 1992. Bone mineralization outcomes in human milk fed preterm infants. Pediatr Res 31(6):583-86.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Scheuer L, Black S. 2000. Developmental Juvenile Osteology. Academic Press: London.Google Scholar

  • Schnitzler CM, Mesquita JM, Pettifor JM. 2009. Cortical bone development in black and white South African children: iliac crest histomorphometry. Bone 44.603-11.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Schoenau F, Fricke O. 2008. Mechanical influences on bone development in children. Eur J Endocrinol 159:S27-S31.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Schultz M. 2003. Differential diagnoses of in-travitam and postmortem bone loss at the micro-level. In: Agarwal SC and Stout SD. Editors. Bone Loss and Osteoporosis: An Anthropological Perspective. New York: Kluwer Academic. 172-187.Google Scholar

  • Smith R, Wordsworth P. 2005. Clinical and Biochemical Disorders of the Skeleton. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Southard RN, Morris JD, Mahan JD, Hayes JR, Torch MA, Sommer A et al. 1991. Bone mass in healthy children: measurements with quantitative DXA. Radiology 179:735-38.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Specker BL, Brazero LW, Tsang RC, Levin R, Searcy J, Steichen J. 1987. Bone mineral content in children 1-6 years of age -detectable sex differences after 4 years of age. Am J Dis Child 141:343-44.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Specker BL, Namgung R, Tsang RC. 2001. Bone mineral acquisition in utero, during infancy, and throughout childhood. In: R Marcus, Feldman D and Kelsey J, editors. Osteoporosis volume 1: second edition: Academic Press: 599-620.Google Scholar

  • Stiner MC. 2004. A comparison of photon densitometry and computed tomography parameters of bone density in ungulate body part profiles. Journal of Taphonomy 2(3):117-45.Google Scholar

  • Symmons R. 2004. Digital photodensitome-try: a reliable and accessible method for measuring bone density. J Archaeol Sci 31:711-19.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Trotter M. 1971. The density of bones in the young skeleton. Growth 35:221-31.Google Scholar

  • Trotter M, Hixton B. 1974. Sequential changes in weight, density and percentage ash weight of human skeletons from an early fetal period through to old age. Anat Rec 179:1-18.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Tsukahara H, Sudo M, Umezaki M, Hiraoka M, Yamamoto K, Ishii Y et al. 1992. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the lumbar spine, proximal femur and distal radius in children. Pediatr Radiol 22(8):560-62.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Van den Bergh MF, De Man SA, Witteman JC, Hofman A, Tauerbach WT, Grabbee DE. 1995. Physical activity, calcium intake and bone mineral content in children in the Netherlands. J Epidemiol Commun H 19:299-304.Google Scholar

  • Van Gerven D, Hummert J, Burr J. 1985. Cortical bone maintenance and the geometry of the tibia in prehistoric children from Nubia's Batn El Hajar. Am J Phys Anthropol 66:275-80.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Viña SE, Bueno LG, Armand´ MMI, Hernández PC, Lozano TC, Ruibal FJL et al. 1999. Forearm bone mineral density in healthy children. An Esp Pediatríc 51(6):657-63.Google Scholar

  • Wang HC, Aguirre M, Bhudikanok GS, Kendall CG, Kirsch S, Marcus R et al. 1997. Bone mass and hip axis length in healthy Asians, black, Hispanic and White Americans Youths. J Bone Miner Res 12:192235.Google Scholar

  • Webber CE, Beaumont LF, Morrison J, Sala A, Barr RD. 2007. Age predicted value for lumbar spine, proximal femur, and whole bone mineral density: results from a population of normal children aged 8-18yrs. Can Assoc Radiol J 58(1):37-45.Google Scholar

  • Wetzsteon RJ, Hughes JM, Kaufman BC, Vazquez G, Stoffregen TA, Stovitz SD et al. 2009. Ethnic differences in bone geometry and strength are apparent childhood. Bone 44:970-75.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Willey P, Galloway A, Snyder L. 1997. Bone mineral density and survival of elements and element portions in the bones of the crow creek massacre victims. Am J Phys Anthropol 104:513-28.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wosje KS, Specker BL. 2000. Role of calcium in bone health during childhood. Nutrition Rev 58:253-68.Google Scholar

  • Yeste D, Del Río L, Gussinyé M, Carrascose A. 1998. Bone mineral density in nursing infants and young children (0-4 yrs old) at the level of the lumbar spine: the normal pattern. An Esp Pediatric 49(3):248-52.Google Scholar

  • Young P, Hopper JL, Nowson CA, Green RM, Sherwin JA, Kaymakci B et al. 1995. Determinants of bone mass in 10 to 26 year old females: A twin study. J Bone Min Res 10(4):558-67.Google Scholar

  • Zanchetta JR, Plotkin H, Alvarez Filgueira ML. 1995. Bone mass in children: normative values for the 2-20 year old population. Bone 16(4):393S-99S.Google Scholar

  • Zhai F, Zhag L, Wang C, Pan H. 2004. Study of normal reference values for bone mineral contents in children and adolescents in Beijing. Journal of Hygiene Research 33(2):172-75.Google Scholar

About the article

*The Mews, Darley Abbey, Derby, DE22 1AG, Derbyshire, United Kingdom


Received: 2014-03-15

Accepted: 2014-06-02

Published Online: 2014-07-15


Citation Information: Anthropological Review, ISSN (Online) 2083-4594, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/anre-2014-0011.

Export Citation

© 2014 Anthropological Review. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Céline Martin, Bruno Maureille, Romain Amiot, Alexandra Touzeau, Aurélien Royer, François Fourel, Gérard Panczer, Jean-Pierre Flandrois, and Christophe Lécuyer
Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies, 2017, Volume 53, Number 3, Page 223
[2]
Elena Hadjimbei, George Botsaris, Vassilis Gekas, and Andrie G. Panayiotou
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2016, Volume 2016, Page 1
[3]
Felicia C. Madimenos
Annual Review of Anthropology, 2015, Volume 44, Number 1, Page 189
[4]
B.M. Manifold
HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology, 2015, Volume 66, Number 6, Page 520

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in