Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Annals of Animal Science

The Journal of National Research Institute of Animal Production

4 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.731

CiteScore 2016: 0.79

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.345
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.687

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Capon Production – Breeding Stock, Rooster Castration And Rearing Methods, And Meat Quality – A Review

Jolanta Calik
  • Department of Animal Genetic Resources Conservation, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2014-11-15 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/aoas-2014-0050


Over the last decade, there has been an increased consumer interest in niche food products with special aroma and flavour, and rich in nutrients. Poland has a large (19 lines) and valuable collection of laying hens enrolled in the genetic resources conservation programme. Research to date has shown these hen breeds to vary in phenotype, productivity, and biological quality of hatching eggs and meat. A significant problem in using hens for both egg and meat production is that the number of unwanted cockerels increases with increasing intensity of egg production. This problem can be overcome by castration of cockerels. Roosters were sterilized long before Christ, first as a religious ritual and then to increase the body weight of birds. The qualities of capon meat were noticed much later when it turned out to be more delicate, juicy and tender compared to rooster meat. The aim of this paper was to review the literature on capon production, including the effects of castration on the bird’s body and on the quality of meat obtained.

Keywords : capon; castration; rearing methods; meat quality


  • Berri C., Le Bihan - Duval E., Baèza E., Chartrin P., Picgirard L., Jehl N., Quentin M., Picard M., Duclos J. (2005). Further processing characteristics of breast and leg meat from fast-, medium- and slow-growing commercial chickens. Anim. Res., 54: 123-134.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Calik J., Połtowicz K., Świątkiewicz S., Pietras M. (2013). Effect of caponization on the body weight and dressing percentage of Greenleg Partridge cocks (in Polish). Proc. Pol-Ger. Conf., Balice, Poland, 15-17.10.2013, pp. 223-224.Google Scholar

  • Chen K.L., Hsieh T.Y., Chiou P.W.S. (2006). Caponization effects on growth performance and lipid metabolism in Taiwan country chicken cockerels. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 19: 438-443.Google Scholar

  • Cheng L.Y., Hsu J.C. (2002). Effects of surgical caponization on growth performance, fibre diameter and some physical properties of muscles in Taiwan country chicken cockerels. Asian J. Anim. Sci., 15: 401-405. Commission Regulation (EC) No 543/2008 of 16 June 2008 laying down detailed rules for the application of Council Regulation (EC) No 1234/2007 as regards the marketing standards for poultry meat. Google Scholar

  • Debut M., Berri C., Arnould C., Guemené D., Santé - Lhoutellier V., SellierN., Baéza E., Jehl N., Jégo Y., Beaumont C., Le Bihan - Duval E. (2007). Behavioral and physiological responses of three chicken breeds to pre-slaughter shackling and acute heat stress.Brit. Poultry Sci., 46: 527-535.Google Scholar

  • Dumanowski J., Pawlas A., Poznański J. (2010). Stanisław Czerniecki’s culinary secrets. Recipes from the oldest Polish cookbook, dating back to 1682 (in Polish). Muzeum-Pałac w Wilanowie, Warszawa, 143 pp.Google Scholar

  • Fanatico A.C., Pillai P.B., Cavitt L.C., Emmert J.L, Meullenet J.F., OwensC.M. (2006). Evaluation of slower-growing broiler genotypes grown with and without outdoor access: sensory attributes. Poultry Sci., 85: 337-343.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gilewski R., Janocha A., Tomczyk G., Wężyk S. (2010). New trends in chicken breeding and production (in Polish). Oficyna Wydawnicza Hoża, Warszawa, 219 pp.Google Scholar

  • Gogolewski L., Czerwiński M. (2012). Caponizing roosters (in Polish). Pol. Drob., 1: 46-48.Google Scholar

  • Hobday F.T.G. (1914). Castration (including cryptorchidism and caponing) and ovariotomy. Johnston, London, 2nd ed., 88 pp.Google Scholar

  • Hsu J.C., Lin C.Y. (2003). Influence of caponization on the carcass characteristics in Taiwan country chicken cockerels. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 16: 575-580.Google Scholar

  • Jacob J., Mather F.B. (2000). Capons. Factsheet PS-54, Department of Animal Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville. www.edis.ufl.edu.Google Scholar

  • Kasperek K., Kwiecień M., Grela E., Pałyszka M., Knaga S., Jeżewska - WitkowskaG. (2013). The Greenleg Partridge rooster caponing influence on selected blood parameters. Proc. XXV Int. Poult. Symp. PB WPSA, Zegrze k. Warszawy, 2-4.09.2013, pp. 51-55.Google Scholar

  • Koreleski J., Świątkiewicz S., Arczewska A. (2008). Dual-purpose slow-growing chickens for meat production. Ann. Anim. Sci., 8: 281-287.Google Scholar

  • Krawczyk J. (2009). Quality of eggs from Polish native Greenleg Partridge chicken-hens maintained in organic vs. backyard production systems. Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep., 27: 227-235Google Scholar

  • Lin C.Y., HsuJ.C. (2002). Effects of surgical caponization on growth performance, fiber diameter and some physical properties of muscles in Taiwan country chicken cockerels. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 15: 401-405.Google Scholar

  • LinC.Y., Hsu J.C., Wan T.C (2012). Effect of age and caponization on blood parameters and bone development of male native chickens in Taiwan. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 25: 994-1002.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Mahmud M.A., Shaba P., Gana J., Yisa H.Y., Ndagimba R. (2013). Effects of surgical caponisation on growth, carcass and some hematological parameters in cockerel chickens. Sok.J. Vet. Sci., 11: 57-62.Google Scholar

  • Mast M.G., Jordan H.C., Macneil J.H. (1981). The effect of partial and complete caponization on growth rate, yield, and selected physical and sensory attributes of cockerels. Poultry Sci., 60: 1827-1833.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Miguel J.A., CiriaJ., Asenjo B., Calvo J.L. (2008). Effect of caponisation on growth and on carcass and meat characteristics in Castellana Negra native Spanish chickens. Animal, 2: 305-311.Web of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Muriel Duran A. (2004). The effect of caponization on production indices and carcass and meat characteristic in free-range Extremena Azul chickens. Span. J. Agric. Res., 2: 211-216.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Połtowicz K. (2007). Effect of crossing slow-growing hens with Hubbard cocks on performance and meat quality of the crossbreds. Proc. XVIII European Symposium on the Quality of Poultry Meat, Prague, Czech Republic, 2-5.09.2007, pp. 297-300.Google Scholar

  • Połtowicz K., Doktor J. (2012). Effect of slaughter age on performance and meat quality of slowgrowing broiler chickens. Ann. Anim. Sci., 12: 621-631.Google Scholar

  • Puchała M., Krawczyk J., Calik J. (2014). Influence of origin of laying hens on the quality of their carcasses and meat after the first laying period. Ann. Anim. Sci., 14: 685-696.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Rahman M.M., Islam M.A., Ali M.Y., KhondakerM.E.A., Hossain M.M. (2004). Effect of caponization on body weight, hematological traits and blood cholesterol concentration of Nara chicken. Int. J. Poultry Sci., 3: 284-286.Google Scholar

  • Rikimaru K., Yasuda M., Komatsu M., IshizukaJ. (2009). Effects of caponization on growth performance and carcass traits in Hinaijidori chicken. Jpn. Poultry Sci., 46: 351-355.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rikimaru K., Takahashi H., Nichlos M.A. (2011). An efficient method of early caponization in slow-growing meat-type chickens. Poultry Sci., 90: 1852-1857.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Shao Y., Wu CH., Li J. Zhao Ch. (2009). The effects of different caponization age on growth performance and blood parameters in male Tibetan chicken. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 4: 228-236.Google Scholar

  • Sinanoglou V.J., Mantis F., Miniadis - Meimaroglou S., Symeon G.K., Bizelis I.A. (2011). Effects of caponisation on lipid and fatty acid composition of intramuscular and abdominal fat of medium-growth broilers. Brit. Poultry Sci., 52: 310-317.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sirri F., Bianchi M., PetracciM., Meluzzi A. (2009). Influence of partial and complete caponization on chicken meat quality. Poultry Sci., 88: 1466-1473.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Symeon G.K., Mantis F., Bizelis I., Kominakis A., Rogdakis E. (2010). Effects of caponization on growth performance, carcass composition, and meat quality of medium growth broiler. Poultry Sci., 89: 1481-1489.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Szuman J. (1951). Poultry Breeding (in Polish). PWRiL Warszawa, 594 pp.Google Scholar

  • Świerczewska E., SiennickaA., Michalczuk M. (2002). Changes in performance and anatomo-physiological traits of poultry in response to selection (in Polish). Zesz. Nauk. PTZ, 66: 63-72.Google Scholar

  • Tor M., EstanyJ., Villalba D., Molina E., Cubilò D. (2002). Comparison of carcass composition by parts and tissues between cocks and capons. Anim. Res., 51: 421-43.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Tor M., Estany J., Francesch D.A., Cubilò D. (2005). Comparison of fatty acid profiles of edible meat, adipose tissues and muscles between cocks and capons. Anim. Res., 54: 413-424.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Toussaint - SamatM. (2009). A History of Food. Wiley-Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons Ltd.), Chichester, 2nd ed., 733 pp.Google Scholar

  • World Watch List for Domestic Animal Diversity (2000). FAO/UNEP, Roma, 3rd ed. www.minrol.gov.pl/pol/jakosc-zywnosci/produkty-regionalne-i-tradycyjne/lista-produktow-tradycyjnych. Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2014-03-13

Accepted: 2014-05-13

Published Online: 2014-11-15

Published in Print: 2014-10-01

Citation Information: Annals of Animal Science, Volume 14, Issue 4, Pages 769–777, ISSN (Online) 2300-8733, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/aoas-2014-0050.

Export Citation

© by Jolanta Calik. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Jolanta Calik, Józefa Krawczyk, Sylwester Świątkiewicz, Robert Gąsior, Krzysztof Wojtycza, Katarzyna Połtowicz, Joanna Obrzut, and Michał Puchała
Annals of Animal Science, 2017, Volume 17, Number 3
E. Tomaszewska, M. Kwiecień, S. Muszyński, P. Dobrowolski, K. Kasperek, T. Blicharski, G. Jeżewska-Witkowska, and E. R. Grela
British Poultry Science, 2017, Volume 58, Number 3, Page 312

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in