Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Altorientalische Forschungen

Ed. by Novák, Mirko / Hazenbos, Joost / Mittermayer, Catherine / Suter, Claudia E.


CiteScore 2018: 0.21

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.137
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.709

Online
ISSN
2196-6761
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 42, Issue 1

Issues

Classifying Iron Age Levantine Ivories: Impracticalities and a New Approach

Claudia E. Suter
  • Corresponding author
  • Universität Bern, Institut für Archäologische Wissenschaften, Abteilung für Vorderasiatische Archäologie, Länggassstrasse 10, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-03-11 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/aofo-2015-0007

Abstract

For more than a century scholarship has focused on the stylistic classification of Iron Age Levantine ivory carvings with the aim of specifying centers of production and their time of activity. With nearly all ivories from Nimrud published, the difficulties in attaining a generally accepted classification have increased rather than diminished. One could say that we have reached a deadlock. This contribution outlines the problems that the author encountered in her research on the Samaria ivories, the largest assemblage from a Levantine capital. It promotes Marian Feldman’s new sociological approach, which provides a convincing theoretical framework for explaining why the present classification endeavors are impractical.

Keywords: Levant; Iron Age; Ivory Carving; Style; Classification; Connoisseurship; Social Practices

References

  • Affanni, G. (2009): Ivory Sphinxes of North Syrian Tradition: The Flame and Frond School. In: S.M. Cecchini et al. (ed.), Syrian and Phoenician Ivories of the Early First Millennium BCE: Chronology, Regional Styles and Iconographic Repertories, Patterns of Inter-regional Distribution: Acts of the International Workshop Pisa, December 9th–11th 2004 (Ricerche di archeologia del Vicino Oriente 3), Pisa, 171–185.Google Scholar

  • Barnett, R.D. (1957): A Catalogue of the Nimrud Ivories with Other Examples of Ancient Near Eastern Ivories in the British Museum, London.Google Scholar

  • Barnett, R.D. (1982): Ancient Ivories in the Middle East (Qedem 14), Jerusalem.Google Scholar

  • Bourdieu, P. (1990): The Logic of Practice, Cambridge.Google Scholar

  • Buhl, M.-L. / P.J. Riis (1990): Hama, fouilles et recherches de la Fondation Carlsberg 1931–1938, vol. II/2: Les objets de la période dite syro-hittite (âge du fer), Copenhagen.Google Scholar

  • Caubet, A. (2013): Working Ivory in Syria and Anatolia in the Late Bronze-Iron Age. In: K.A. Yener (ed.), Across the Border: Late Bronze-Iron Age Relations between Syria and Anatolia, Leuven, 449–463.Google Scholar

  • Cecchini, S.M. et al. (ed.) (2009): Syrian and Phoenician Ivories of the Early First Millennium BCE: Chronology, Regional Styles and Iconographic Repertories, Patterns of Inter-regional Distribution: Acts of the International Workshop Pisa, December 9th–11th 2004 (Ricerche di archeologia del Vicino Oriente 3), Pisa.Google Scholar

  • Crowfoot, J.W. / G.M. Crowfoot (1938): Early Ivories from Samaria, London.Google Scholar

  • Di Paolo, S. (2009): What Production Model Can Be Deduced for First-Millennium BC Syro-Phoenician Ivories? Some Observations with Analogies Drawn from Byzantine, Early Medieval and Gothic Material. In: S.M. Cecchini et al. (ed.), Syrian and Phoenician Ivories of the Early First Millennium BCE: Chronology, Regional Styles and Iconographic Repertories, Patterns of Inter-regional Distribution: Acts of the International Workshop Pisa, December 9th–11th 2004 (Ricerche di archeologia del Vicino Oriente 3), Pisa, 133–153.Google Scholar

  • Di Paolo, S. (2014): The Historiography of the Concept of ‘Workshop’ in Ancient Near Eastern Archaeology: Descriptive Models and Theoretical Approaches (Anthropology vs. Art History). In: B.A. Brown / M.H. Feldman (ed.), Critical Approaches to Ancient Near Eastern Art, Boston, 111–132.Google Scholar

  • Ebitz, D. (1988): Connoisseurship as Practice, Artibus et Historiae 9, 207–212.Google Scholar

  • Feldman, M.H. (2012): The Practical Logic of Style and Memory in Early First Millennium Levantine Ivories. In: J. Maran / P.W. Stockhammer (ed.), Materiality and Social Practice: Transformative Capacities of Intercultural Encounters, Oxford, 198–212.Google Scholar

  • Feldman, M.H. (2014): Communities of Style: Portable Luxury Arts, Identity, and Collective Memory in the Iron Age Levant, Chicago.Google Scholar

  • Finkelstein, I. (2013): The Forgotten Kingdom: The Archaeology and History of Northern Israel, Atlanta.Google Scholar

  • Gansell, A.R. et al. (2014): Stylistic Clusters and the Syrian/South Syrian Tradition of First-Millennium BCE Levantine Ivory Carving: A Machine Learning Approach, JArS 44, 194–205.Google Scholar

  • Gunter, A.C. (2009): Greek Art and the Orient, Cambridge.Google Scholar

  • Herrmann, G. (1986): Ivories from Nimrud (1949–1963) IV: Ivories from Room SW37, Fort Shalmaneser, London.Google Scholar

  • Herrmann, G. (1992): Ivories from Nimrud (1949–1963) V: The Small Collections from Fort Shalmaneser, London.Google Scholar

  • Herrmann, G. (2005): Naming, Defining, Explaining: A View from Nimrud. In: C.E. Suter / C. Uehlinger (ed.), Crafts and Images in Contact: Studies in Eastern Mediterranean Art of the First Millennium BCE (OBO 210), Fribourg, 11–21.Google Scholar

  • Herrmann, G. (2008): The Ivories from Nimrud. In: J. Curtis et al. (ed.), New Light on Nimrud: Proceedings of the Nimrud Conference (11–13 March 2002, London), London, 225–232.Google Scholar

  • Herrmann, G. / S. Laidlaw (2009): Ivories from Nimrud (1949–1963) VI: Ivories from the North West Palace (1845–1992), London.Google Scholar

  • Herrmann, G. / S. Laidlaw (2013): Ivories from Nimrud (1949–1963) VII: Ivories from Rooms SW11/12 and T10, Fort Shalmaneser, London.Google Scholar

  • Kantor, H.J. (1956): Syro-Palestinian Ivories, JNES 15, 153–174.Google Scholar

  • Karageorghis, V. (1973): Salamis 5: Excavations in the Necropolis of Salamis III, Nicosia.Google Scholar

  • Mallowan, M.E.L. / G. Herrmann (1974): Ivories from Nimrud (1949–1963) III: Furniture from SW7, Fort Shalmaneser, London.Google Scholar

  • Mazzoni, S. (2009): Ivories and Art Traditions in the Hama Region. In: S.M. Cecchini et al. (ed.), Syrian and Phoenician Ivories of the Early First Millennium BCE: Chronology, Regional Styles and Iconographic Repertories, Patterns of Inter-regional Distribution: Acts of the International Workshop Pisa, December 9th–11th 2004 (Ricerche di archeologia del Vicino Oriente 3), Pisa, 107–132.Google Scholar

  • Mazzoni, S. (2014): The Aramean States during the Iron Age II–III Periods. In: M.L. Steiner / A.E. Killebrew (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant c. 8000–332 BCE, Corby, 683–705.Google Scholar

  • Neer, R. (2005): Connoisseurship and the Stakes of Style, Critical Inquiry 32, 1–26.Google Scholar

  • Niemeyer, H.G. (2004): The Phoenicians and the Birth of a Multinational Mediterranean Society. In: R. Rollinger / C. Ulf (ed.), Commerce and Monetary Systems in the Ancient World: Means of Transmission and Cultural Interaction, Stuttgart, 245–256.Google Scholar

  • Orthmann, W. (2002): Die Bildkunst im Übergang von der Großreichszeit zur späthethitischen Periode. In: E.A. Braun-Holzinger / H. Matthäus (ed.), Die nahöstlichen Kulturen und Griechenland an der Wende vom 2. zum 1. Jahrtausend v. Chr.: Kontinuität und Wandel von Strukturen und Mechanismen kultureller Interaktion, Möhnesee, 153–159.Google Scholar

  • Orthmann, W. (2013): Stone Sculpture of the Iron Age in Northern Syria. In: W. Orthmann et al. (ed.), Archéologie et histoire de la Syrie I: La Syrie de l’époque néolithique à l’âge du fer (SVA 1/1), Wiesbaden, 525–542.Google Scholar

  • Poulsen, F. (1912): Der Orient und die frühgriechische Kunst, Leipzig.Google Scholar

  • Scigliuzzo, E. (2005): The ‘Wig and Wing Workshop’ of Iron Age Ivory Carving, UF 37, 557–607.Google Scholar

  • Scigliuzzo, E. (2009): A Group of Ivory Fan-Handles from the Burnt Palace of Nimrud and the ‘Wig and Wing Workshop.’ In: S.M. Cecchini et al. (ed.), Syrian and Phoenician Ivories of the Early First Millennium BCE: Chronology, Regional Styles and Iconographic Repertories, Patterns of Inter-regional Distribution: Acts of the International Workshop Pisa, December 9th–11th 2004 (Ricerche di archeologia del Vicino Oriente 3), 209–237.Google Scholar

  • Suter, C.E. (2005): Discussion and Future Perspectives. In: C.E. Suter / C. Uehlinger (ed.), Crafts and Images in Contact: Studies in Eastern Mediterranean Art of the First Millennium BCE (OBO 210), Fribourg, 391–395.Google Scholar

  • Suter, C.E. (2010): Luxury Goods in Ancient Israel: Questions of Consumption and Production. In: P. Matthiae et al. (ed.), Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East (5–10 May 2008, Rome), vol. 1, Wiesbaden, 993–1002.Google Scholar

  • Uehlinger, C. (2005): Die Elfenbeinschnitzereien von Samaria und die Religionsgeschichte Israels: Vorüberlegungen zu einem Forschungsprojekt. In: C.E. Suter / C. Uehlinger (ed.), Crafts and Images in Contact: Studies in Eastern Mediterranean Art of the First Millennium BCE (OBO 210), Fribourg, 149–186.Google Scholar

  • Wicke, D. (1999): Altorientalische Pferdescheuklappen, UF 31, 803–852.Google Scholar

  • Wicke, D. (2005): ‘Roundcheeked and Ringletted’: Gibt es einen nordwestsyrischen Regionalstil in der altorientalischen Elfenbeinschnitzerei? In: C.E. Suter / C. Uehlinger (ed.), Crafts and Images in Contact: Studies in Eastern Mediterranean Art of the First Millennium BCE (OBO 210), Fribourg, 67–106.Google Scholar

  • Wicke, D. (2009): ‘Intermediate Tradition’ – dreifach problematisch. In: S.M. Cecchini et al. (ed.), Syrian and Phoenician Ivories of the Early First Millennium BCE: Chronology, Regional Styles and Iconographic Repertories, Patterns of Inter-regional Distribution: Acts of the International Workshop Pisa, December 9th–11th 2004 (Ricerche di archeologia del Vicino Oriente 3), 239–284.Google Scholar

  • Wicke, D. (2010): Kleinfunde aus Elfenbein und Knochen aus Assur (WVDOG 131), Wiesbaden.Google Scholar

  • Wicke, D. (2013): Elfenbeinschnitzereien in der Eisenzeit. In: W. Orthmann et al. (ed.), Archéologie et histoire de la Syrie I: La Syrie de l’époque néolithique à l’âge du fer (SVA 1/1), Wiesbaden, 549–570.Google Scholar

  • Winter, I.J. (1975): North Syria in the Early First Millennium B.C., with Special Reference to Ivory Carving, PhD diss., Columbia University.Google Scholar

  • Winter, I.J. (1976a): Phoenician and North Syrian Ivory Carving in Historical Context: Questions of Style and Distribution, Iraq 38, 1–22.Google Scholar

  • Winter, I.J. (1976b): Carved Ivory Furniture Panels from Nimrud: A Coherent Subgroup of the North Syrian Style, MMAJ 11, 25–54.Google Scholar

  • Winter, I.J. (1976c): Review of M.E.L. Mallowan / G. Herrmann, Furniture from SW 7 Fort Shalmaneser, London 1974, AJA 80, 201–203.Google Scholar

  • Winter, I.J. (1981): Is There a South Syrian Style of Ivory Carving in the Early First Millennium BC?, Iraq 43, 101–130.Google Scholar

  • Winter, I.J. (1989): North Syrian Ivories and Tell Halaf Reliefs: The Impact of Luxury Goods upon ‘Major Arts’. In: A. Leonard / B.B. Williams (ed.), Essays in Ancient Civilization presented to Helene J. Kantor (SAOC 47), Chicago, 321–337.Google Scholar

  • Winter, I.J. (1992): Review of G. Herrmann, Ivories from Room 37 Fort Shalmaneser, London 1986, JNES 51, 135–141.Google Scholar

  • Winter, I.J. (1998): Review of G. Herrmann, The Small Collections from Fort Shalmaneser, London 1992, JNES 57, 150–153.Google Scholar

  • Winter, I.J. (2005): Establishing Group Boundaries: Toward Methodological Refinement in the Determination of Sets as a Prior Condition to the Analysis of Cultural Contact and/or Innovation in First Millennium BCE Ivory Carving. In: C.E. Suter / C. Uehlinger (ed.), Crafts and Images in Contact: Studies in Eastern Mediterranean Art of the First Millennium BCE (OBO 210), Fribourg, 23–42.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2016-03-11

Published in Print: 2015-06-01


Citation Information: Altorientalische Forschungen, Volume 42, Issue 1, Pages 31–45, ISSN (Online) 2196-6761, ISSN (Print) 0232-8461, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/aofo-2015-0007.

Export Citation

© 2015 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in