Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Altorientalische Forschungen

Ed. by Novák, Mirko / Hazenbos, Joost / Mittermayer, Catherine / Suter, Claudia E.


CiteScore 2018: 0.21

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.137
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.709

Online
ISSN
2196-6761
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 46, Issue 1

Issues

Polysemy Revisited

Metaphor and Descriptiveness in Folk Animal Naming

Andrea Guasparri
Published Online: 2019-07-11 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/aofo-2019-0006

Abstract

This paper addresses the cognitive models that frame our understanding of what is traditionally called “metaphoric polysemy”, a well-established principle at work when it comes to naming the animals around us. In particular, taking the Roman nomenclature of aquatic animals as a case study, polysemy is redefined according to some basic cognitive principles of ethnobiological classification such as analogical similarity, biological essentialism and the role of simultaneous metaphoric and metonymic associations to the perceptual/cultural constraints targeted on the biological referent for naming it – the result is at least two kinds of metaphoric polysemy, to be called “external” (or exo-polysemy) and “internal” (or endo-polysemy), respectively. The idea is that the naming patterns that emerge from the ethnozoological nomenclature under examination may not only provide a better understanding of an ancient people’s zooanthropology but a paradigm for analysing descriptive ethnobiological naming in general.

Keywords: Ancient Ethnozoological Nomenclature; Metaphoric Polysemy; Linguistic Ethnobiology

Bibliography

  • Alinei, M. (2004): The Role of Motivation (“iconimy”) in Naming: Six Responses to a List of Questions. In: G. Sanga/G. Ortalli (ed.), Nature Knowledge: Ethnoscience, Cognition, and Utility, New York – Venice, 108–118.Google Scholar

  • Allen, M. (1978): Morphological Investigations, PhD Thesis, University of Connectictut.Google Scholar

  • Anderson, E.N. (2011): Ethnobiology: Overview of a Growing Field. In: E.N. Anderson et al. (ed.), Ethnobiology, Hoboken, N.J., 1–14.Google Scholar

  • Aronoff, M. (1976): Word Formation in Generative Grammar, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar

  • Aronoff, M. (1994): Morphology by Itself: Stems and Inflectional Classes, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar

  • Aronoff, M. (1999): Morphology. In: R.A. Wilson/F.C. Keil (ed.), The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences, Cambridge, MA., 562–564.Google Scholar

  • Atran, S. (1990): Cognitive Foundations of Natural History: Towards an Anthropology of Science, Cambridge.Google Scholar

  • Atran, S. (1999): Itzaj Maya Folkbiological Taxonomy. In: D.L. Medin/S. Atran (ed.), Folkbiology, Cambridge, MA., 119–203.Google Scholar

  • Avila, V.L. (1995): Biology: Investigating Life on Earth, Boston.Google Scholar

  • Balme, D.M. (1962): Genos and Eidos in Aristotle’s Biology, The Classical Quarterly 12, 81–98.Google Scholar

  • Balme, D.M. (1987a): Aristotle’s Use of Division and Differentiae. In: A. Gotthelf/J.G. Lennox (ed.), Philosophical Issues in Aristotle’s Biology, Cambridge, 69–89.Google Scholar

  • Balme, D.M. (1987b): The Place of Biology in Aristotle’s Philosophy. In: A. Gotthelf/J.G. Lennox (ed.), Philosophical Issues in Aristotle’s Biology, Cambridge, 9–20.Google Scholar

  • Berlin, B. (1992): Ethnobiological Classification: Principles of Categorization of Plants and Animals in Traditional Societies, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar

  • Berlin, B. (2006): The First Congress of Ethnozoological Nomenclature, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 12, S23–S44.Google Scholar

  • Berlin, B. et al. (1973): General Principles of Classification and Nomenclature in Folk Biology, American Anthropologist 75, 214–242.Google Scholar

  • Bettini, M. (1979): Studi e note su Ennio, Pisa.Google Scholar

  • Bettini, M. (1993): Intervento per l’inaugurazione dell’“Antiquarium del mare”, Cattolica.Google Scholar

  • Blank, A. (2003): Polysemy in the Lexicon and in Discourse. In: B. Nerlich et al. (ed.), Polysemy: Flexible Patterns of Meaning in Mind and Language, Berlin – New York, 267–298.Google Scholar

  • Bolton, R. (1987): Definition and Scientific Method in Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics and Generation of Animals. In: A. Gotthelf/J.G. Lennox (ed.), Philosophical Issues in Aristotle’s Biology, Cambridge, 120–166.Google Scholar

  • Bréal, M. (1924 [1897]): Essai de sémantique (Science des significations), Paris.Brown, C.H. (1984): Language and Living Things, New Brunswick.Google Scholar

  • Brown, C.H. (1995): Lexical Acculturation and Ethnobiology: Utilitarianism versus Intellectualism, Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 5, 51–64.Bulmer, R. (1967): Why is the Cassowary Not a Bird? A Problem of Zoological Taxonomy among the Karam of the New Guinea Highlands, Man 2, 5–25.Google Scholar

  • Casagrande, D.G. (2004): Ethnobiology Lives! Theory, Collaboration, and Possibilities for the Study of Folk Biologies, Reviews in Anthropology 33, 351–370.Google Scholar

  • Chomsky, N. (1965): Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar

  • Clayton, S./G. Myers (2015): Conservation Psychology: Understanding and Promoting Human Care for Nature, Hoboken, NJ.Google Scholar

  • Conklin, H.C. (1954): The Relation of Hanunóo Culture to the Plant World, PhD Thesis, Yale University, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar

  • Conklin, H.C. (1968): Lexicographical Treatment of Folk-Taxonomies. In: J.A. Fishman (ed.), Readings in the Sociology of Language, Berlin, 414–433.Google Scholar

  • Crockford, C. et al. (2012): Wild Chimpanzees Inform Ignorant Group Members of Danger, Current Biology 22, 142–146.Google Scholar

  • Cuskley, C./S. Kirby (2013): Synesthesia, Cross-Modality, and Language Evolution. In: J. Simmer/E. Hubbard (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Synesthesia, Oxford, 869–907.Google Scholar

  • Darwin, C. (1859): On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, London.Google Scholar

  • de Buffon, G.-L. (1868): Histoire naturelle. Premier discours, Paris.Google Scholar

  • de Saussure, F. (1986): Course in General Linguistics, LaSalle, IL.Google Scholar

  • de Tournefort, J.P. (1694): Éléments de botanique, Paris.Google Scholar

  • Donald, M. (1999): Preconditions for the Evolution of Protolanguages. In: M.L. Corballis/S. Lea (ed.), The Descent of Mind: Psychological Perspectives on Hominid Evolution, Oxford, 38–154.Google Scholar

  • Donald, M. (2001): A Mind so Rare: The Evolution of Human Consciousness, New York.Google Scholar

  • Donald, M. (2017): Key Cognitive Preconditions for the Evolution of Language, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 24, 204–208.Google Scholar

  • Eco, U. (1971): Le forme del contenuto, Milan.Google Scholar

  • Eco, U. (1976): A Theory of Semiotics, Bloomington – London.Google Scholar

  • Ellen, R. (2004): Arbitrariness and Necessity in Ethnobiological Classification. In: G. Sanga/G. Ortalli (ed.), Nature Knowledge, New York – Oxford, 47–56.Google Scholar

  • Ellen, R.F. (2006): Ethnobiology and the Science of Humankind: Introduction, The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 12, S1–S22.Google Scholar

  • Ereshefsky, M. (2001): The Poverty of Linnaean Hierarchy: A Philosophical Study of Biological Taxonomy, Cambridge.Google Scholar

  • Evans-Pritchard, E.E. (1962): Nuer Religion, Oxford.Google Scholar

  • Fabb, N. (1998): Compounding. In: A. Spencer/A.M. Zwicky (ed.), The Handbook of Morphology, Oxford, 66–83.Google Scholar

  • Firth, J.R. (1930): Speech, London.Google Scholar

  • Fortes, M. (1945): The Dynamics of Clanship among the Tallensi: Being the First Part of an Analysis of the Social Structure of a Trans-Volta Tribe, London.Google Scholar

  • Forth, G. (1995): Ethnozoological Classification and Classificatory Language among the Nage of Eastern Indonesia, Journal of Ethnobiology 15, 45–70.Google Scholar

  • Forth, G. (1998): Beneath the Volcano: Religion, Cosmology and Spirit Classification among the Nage of Eastern Indonesia, Leiden.Google Scholar

  • Forth, G. (2010): Symbolic Classification: Retrospective Remarks on an Unrecognized Invention, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 16, 707–725.Google Scholar

  • Forth, G. (2012): Of Mice and Rats: The Place of Murids in Nage Animal Classification and Symbolism, Journal of Ethnobiology 32, 51–73.Google Scholar

  • Forth, G. (2016): Why the Porcupine is Not a Bird: Explorations in the Folk Zoology of an Eastern Indonesian People, Toronto.Google Scholar

  • Gallese, V./G. Lakoff (2005): The Brain’s Concepts: The Role of the Sensory-Motor System in Conceptual Knowledge, Cognitive Neuropsychology 22, 455–479.Google Scholar

  • Gentner, D. (1999): Analogy. In: R.A. Wilson/F.C. Keil (ed.), The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences, Cambridge, MA., 17–20.Google Scholar

  • Gibson, J.J. (1979): The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception, Boston – London.Google Scholar

  • Grene, M.G./D.J. Depew (2004): The Philosophy of Biology: An Episodic History, New York.Google Scholar

  • Guasparri, A. (1998): Varrone linguista: impositio nominum e creatività lingustica in una tassonomia esemplare, Bollettino di studi latini 28, 408–414.Google Scholar

  • Guasparri, A. (2005a): Aquatilium vocabula ad similitudinem: Lessico antropo-linguistico degli animali acquatici nel mondo latino, PhD Thesis, Università degli Studi di Siena.Google Scholar

  • Guasparri, A. (2005b): I nomi vernacolari degli anfibi nel senese. In: S. Piazzini et al. (ed.), Atlante degli anfibi della provincia di Siena (1999–2004), Siena, 32–33.Google Scholar

  • Guasparri, A. (2010): La percezione è culturale? Studiare i nomi degli animali nel mondo antico in una prospettiva cognitivista. In: S. Beta/F. Marzari (ed.), Animali, ibridi, mostri nella cultura antica, Florence, 157–166.Google Scholar

  • Guasparri, A. (2013): Explicit Nomenclature and Classification in Pliny’s Natural History XXXII, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Part A 44, 347–353.Google Scholar

  • Guasparri, A. (2016): Greek khrόmis between sound and smell: Anthropozoology of a fish, Anthropozoologica 51, 105–113.Google Scholar

  • Guasparri, A. (2017): Ethnobiology and Etymology: Greek καλλαρίας (a Mediterranean Cod), Glotta 93, 24–30.Google Scholar

  • Halle, M. (1973): Prolegomena to a Theory of Word Formation, Linguistic Inquiry 4, 3–16.Google Scholar

  • Hays, T. (1982): Utilitarian/Adaptationist Explanations of Folk Biological Classification: Some Cautionary Notes, Journal of Ethnobiology 2, 89–94.Google Scholar

  • Hunn, E. (1982): The Utilitarian Factor in Folk Biological Classification, American Anthropologist 84, 830–847.Google Scholar

  • Hunn, E.S./C.H. Brown (2011): Linguistic Ethnobiology. In: E.N. Anderson et al. (ed.), Ethnobiology, Hoboken, N.J., 319–333.Google Scholar

  • Inagaki, K./G. Hatano (2006): Young Children’s Conception of the Biological World, Current Directions in Psychological Science 15, 177–181.Google Scholar

  • IUCN (2017): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2017. Oryx leucoryx. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T15569A50191626. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T15569A50191626.en. Accessed 25 May 2018.

  • Jakobson, R. (1956): Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasia Disturbances. In: R. Jakobson/M. Halle (ed.), Fundamentals of Language, The Hague, 55–82.Google Scholar

  • Jakobson, R. et al. (1990): On Language, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar

  • Keil, F.C. (2013): The Roots of Folk Biology, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, 15857–15858.Google Scholar

  • Kwon, N./E.R. Round (2015): Phonaesthemes in Morphological Theory, Morphology 25, 1–27.Google Scholar

  • Lakoff, G./M. Johnson (1980): Metaphors We Live By, Chicago.Google Scholar

  • LaPorte, J. (2004): Natural Kinds and Conceptual Change, Cambridge.Google Scholar

  • Lennox, J.G. (1996): Aristotle’s Biological Development: The Balme Hypothesis. In: W.R. Wians (ed.), Aristotle’s Philosophical Development: Problems and Prospects, Lanham, Md., 229–248.Google Scholar

  • Lennox, J.G. (2001a): Aristotle’s Philosophy of Biology: Studies in the Origins of Life Science, Cambridge.Google Scholar

  • Lennox, J.G. (2001b): Aristotle: On the Parts of Animals, Oxford.Google Scholar

  • Lennox, J.G. (2005): The Place of Zoology in Aristotle’s Philosophy. In: R.W. Sharples (ed.), Philosophy and the Sciences in Antiquity, Aldershot, 55–71.Google Scholar

  • Lévi-Strauss, C. (1964): Totemism, London.Google Scholar

  • Lévi-Strauss, C. (1966): The Savage Mind, Chicago.Google Scholar

  • Liddell, H.G. et al. (19409): A Greek-English Lexicon, Oxford.Google Scholar

  • Lieber, R. (1980): On the Organization of the Lexicon, PhD Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar

  • Lloyd, G.E.R. (1996): Aristotelian Explorations, Cambridge.Google Scholar

  • Longo, O. (2004): Tackling Aristotelian Ethnozoology. In: G. Sanga/G. Ortalli (ed.), Nature Knowledge, New York – Oxford, 57–67.Google Scholar

  • Mahner, M./M. Bunge (1997): Foundations of Biophilosophy, Berlin – London.Google Scholar

  • Mandaville, J.P. (2011): Bedouin Ethnobotany: Plant Concepts and Uses in a Desert Pastoral World, Tucson.Google Scholar

  • Manetti, G. (1993): Theories of the Sign in Classical Antiquity, Bloomington, Ind.Google Scholar

  • Marchand, H. (1969): The Categories and Types of Present-Day English Word-Formation: A Synchronic-Diachronic Approach, Munich.Google Scholar

  • Martin, G.J. (1995): Ethnobotany: A Methods Manual, London.Google Scholar

  • Martin, G.J. (2000): Ethnobiology and Ethnoecology. In: S.A. Levin (ed.), Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Amsterdam, 609–621.Google Scholar

  • Martin, R.A. (2004): Missing Links: Evolutionary Concepts & Transitions through Time, Sudbury, MA – London.Google Scholar

  • Mayr, E. (1982): The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar

  • Mayr, E. (2006): Biological Classification: Toward a Synthesis of Opposing Methodologies. In: E. Sober (ed.), Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, Cambridge, MA, 277–294.Google Scholar

  • Mayr, E./P.D. Ashlock (1991): Principles of Systematic Zoology, New York.Google Scholar

  • Mayr, E. et al. (1953): Methods and Principles of Systematic Zoology, New York – London.Google Scholar

  • Medin, D.L./S. Atran (1999): Folkbiology, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar

  • Medin, D.L./S. Atran (2004): The Native Mind: Biological Categorization and Reasoning in Development and Across Cultures, Psychological Review 111, 960–983.Google Scholar

  • Mendelson, M. E. (1967): The ‘Uninvited Guest’: Ancilla to Lévi-Strauss on Totemism and Primitive Thought. In: E.R. Leach (ed.), The Structural Study of Myth and Totemism, London, 119–140.Google Scholar

  • Morelli, L./M.L. Callegari (2006): Taxonomy and Biology of Probiotics. In: I. Goktepe et al. (ed.), Probiotics in Food Safety and Human Health, Boca Raton – London, 67–90.Google Scholar

  • Nerlich, B. et al. (2003): Polysemy: Flexible Patterns of Meaning in Mind and Language, Berlin – New York.Google Scholar

  • Peirce, C.S. (2000): Logic as Semiotic: The Theory of Signs. In: J. Buchler (ed.), Philosophical Writings of Peirce: Selected Writings, London, 98–119.Google Scholar

  • Peirce, C.S. et al. (1960): Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar

  • Pellegrin, P. (1982): La classification des animaux chez Aristote: statut de la biologie et unité de l’aristotélisme, Paris.Google Scholar

  • Pellegrin, P. (1987): Logical Difference and Biological Difference: The Unity of Aristotle’s Thought. In: A. Gotthelf/J.G. Lennox (ed.), Philosophical Issues in Aristotle’s Biology, Cambridge, 313–338.Google Scholar

  • Pfau, R. (2009): Grammar as Processor: A Distributed Morphology Account of Spontaneous Speech Errors, Amsterdam – Philadelphia.Google Scholar

  • Philps, D. (2011): Reconsidering Phonæsthemes: Submorphemic Invariance in English ‘sn-words’, Lingua 121, 1121–1137.Google Scholar

  • Rackham, H. (1940): Pliny: Natural History (Books 8–11), Cambridge, MA – London.Google Scholar

  • Ramachandran, V.S./E.M. Hubbard (2001): Synaesthesia: A Window into Perception, Thought and Language, Journal of Consciousness Studies 8, 3–34.Google Scholar

  • Recanati, F. (1997): Direct Reference: From Language to Thought, Oxford.Google Scholar

  • Richerson, P.J./R.P.D. Boyd (2005): Not by Genes Alone: How Culture Transformed Human Evolution, Chicago – London.Google Scholar

  • Roe, A./G.G. Simpson (1958): Behavior and Evolution, New Haven – London.Google Scholar

  • Scalise, S. et al. (2009): Exocentricity in Compounding, Gengo Kenkyu 135, 49–84.Google Scholar

  • Scalise, S./A. Fábregas (2010): The Head in Compounding. In: S. Scalise/I. Vogel (ed.), Cross-Disciplinary Issues in Compounding, Philadelphia, 109–126.Google Scholar

  • Scalise, S./E. Guevara (2005): The Lexicalist Approach to Word-Formation and the Notion of the Lexicon. In: P. Štekauer et al. (ed.), Handbook of Word-Formation, Dordrecht, 147–187.Google Scholar

  • Schel, A.M. et al. (2013): Chimpanzee Alarm Call Production Meets Key Criteria for Intentionality, PLoS One 8, e76674.Google Scholar

  • Schuh, R.T. (2000): Biological Systematics: Principles and Applications, Ithaca, N.Y.Google Scholar

  • Seto, K.-I. (2003): Metonymic Polysemy and its Place in Meaning Extension. In: B. Nerlich et al. (ed.), Polysemy: Flexible Patterns of Meaning in Mind and Language, Berlin – New York, 195–216.Google Scholar

  • Setoh, P. et al. (2013): Young Infants Have Biological Expectations about Animals, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, 15937–15942.Google Scholar

  • Sillitoe, P. (2006): Ethnobiology and Applied Anthropology: Rapprochement of the Academic with the Practical, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 12, 119–142.Google Scholar

  • Simpson, G.G. (1990): Principles of Animal Taxonomy, New York.Google Scholar

  • Sober, E. (2006): Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, Cambridge, MA – London.Google Scholar

  • Spencer, A. (1991): Morphological Theory, Oxford.Google Scholar

  • Sperber, D. (1982): Le savoir des anthropologues. Trois essais, Paris.Google Scholar

  • Stamos, D.N. (2007): Darwin and the Nature of Species, Albany, NY.Google Scholar

  • Taylor, J.R. (2003): Cognitive Models of Polysemy. In: B. Nerlich et al. (ed.), Polysemy: Flexible Patterns of Meaning in Mind and Language, Berlin – New York, 31–48.van den Broek, J (1988): Ornithologic: A Structural Analysis of Dutch Bird Nomenclature, Anthropologica 30, 61–73.Google Scholar

  • van Waasbergen, L.G. (2004): What Makes a Bacterial Species? When Using Molecular Sequence Data, is rRNA Enough? In: R.V. Miller/M.J. Day (ed.), Microbial Evolution: Gene Establishment, Survival, and Exchange, Washington, 339–356.Google Scholar

  • Wilson, M.C. (2000): Aristotle’s Theory of the Unity of Science, Toronto – London.Google Scholar

  • Winthrop, R.H. (1991): Dictionary of Concepts in Cultural Anthropology, New York – London.Google Scholar

  • Zariquiey, R. (2014): Name Types, Polysemy and Contrast Sets in Kakataibo Ethnobiological Nomenclature (Pano, Peru), Journal of Ethnobiology 34, 251–272.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2019-07-11

Published in Print: 2019-07-10


Citation Information: Altorientalische Forschungen, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 61–87, ISSN (Online) 2196-6761, ISSN (Print) 0232-8461, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/aofo-2019-0006.

Export Citation

© 2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in