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Annual of Navigation

The Journal of Polish Navigational Forum

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LOW-COST NAVIGATION AND GUIDANCE SYSTEMS FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES — PART 2: ATTITUDE DETERMINATION AND CONTROL

Roberto Sabatini
  • Corresponding author
  • Cranfield University, United Kingdom
  • Email:
/ Leopoldo Rodríguez
  • Cranfield University, United Kingdom
/ Anish Kaharkar
  • Cranfield University, United Kingdom
/ Celia Bartel
  • Cranfield University, United Kingdom
/ Tesheen Shaid
  • Cranfield University, United Kingdom
/ David Zammit-Mangion
  • Cranfield University, United Kingdom
Published Online: 2014-02-27 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/aon-2013-0008

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the second part of the research activity performed by Cranfield University to assess the potential of low-cost navigation sensors for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). This part focuses on carrier-phase Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) for attitude determination and control of small to medium size UAVs. Recursive optimal estimation algorithms were developed for combining multiple attitude measurements obtained from different observation points (i.e., antenna locations), and their efficiencies were tested in various dynamic conditions. The proposed algorithms converged rapidly and produced the required output even during high dynamics manoeuvres. Results of theoretical performance analysis and simulation activities are presented in this paper, with emphasis on the advantages of the GNSS interferometric approach in UAV applications (i.e., low cost, high data-rate, low volume/weight, low signal processing requirements, etc.). The simulation activities focussed on the AEROSONDE UAV platform and considered the possible augmentation provided by interferometric GNSS techniques to a low-cost and low-weight/volume integrated navigation system (presented in the first part of this series) which employed a Vision-Based Navigation (VBN) system, a Micro-Electro-Mechanical Sensor (MEMS) based Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and code-range GNSS (i.e., GPS and GALILEO) for position and velocity computations. The integrated VBN-IMU-GNSS (VIG) system was augmented using the inteferometric GNSS Attitude Determination (GAD) sensor data and a comparison of the performance achieved with the VIG and VIG/GAD integrated Navigation and Guidance Systems (NGS) is presented in this paper. Finally, the data provided by these NGS are used to optimise the design of a hybrid controller employing Fuzzy Logic and Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) techniques for the AEROSONDE UAV.

STRESZCZENIE

Artykuł przedstawia drugą część badań wykonanych na Uniwersytecie Cranfield dla oszacowania potencjalnych możliwości tanich czujników nawigacyjnych dla bezzałogowych obiektów latających (UAVs). Ta część skupia się na pomiarach fazowych w globalnych nawigacyjnych systemach satelitarnych (GNSS) dla określenia orientacji przestrzennej i sterowania małego lub średniego UAV. Zastosowano rekurencyjne algorytmy optymalnej estymacji dla łącznego przetwarzania różnorodnych pomiarów otrzymanych za pomocą systemu wielkoantenowego testowanego w różnorodnych warunkach wynikających z ruchu obiektu. Zaproponowane algorytmy okazały się zbieżne i zapewniły oczekiwane rezultaty nawet w warunkach bardzo dynamicznych manewrów. Przedstawiono wyniki analiz teoretycznych oraz symulacji, zwracając uwagę na zalety podejścia interferometrycznego w technice GNSS zastosowanej w warunkach wynikających z cech UAV (niski koszt, wysoka szybkość transmisji danych, niska waga i objętość, niewielkie wymagania odnośnie przetwarzania sygnału itd.). Symulacje odniesiono do UAV typu AEROSONDE z zamiarem poszerzenia możliwości systemu w efekcie zastosowania technik interferometrii GNSS, łącznie z tanimi i niewielkimi zintegrowanymi systemami nawigacyjnymi (przedstawionymi w pierwszej części badań w poprzednim artykule) zbudowanymi na systemach optycznych oraz systemie inercjalnym opartym na sensorach klasy MEMS, współpracującym z kodowym systemem GNSS. W artykule przedstawiono szczegółową analizę własności systemu zintegrowanego, łączącego techniki optyczne z GNSS i inercjalnymi, dodatkowo wspartego technikami interferometrycznymi GNSS dla określenia orientacji przestrzennej obiektu (GNSS Attitude Determination - GAD) oraz porównania z różnymi kombinacjami tych modułów. Ponadto podjęto próbę zastosowania danych dostarczonych przez opisany system NGS do zoptymalizowania mieszanego kontrolera wykorzystującego logikę rozmytą i klasyczny regulator PID do sterowania bezzałogowcem AEROSONDE.

Keywords: GNSS Attitude Determination; Attitude Determination and Control; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle; Low-cost Navigation Sensors; Fuzzy Logic Controller; PID Controller

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About the article

Published Online: 2014-02-27

Published in Print: 2013-06-01



Citation Information: Annual of Navigation, ISSN (Online) 1640-8632, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/aon-2013-0008. Export Citation

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