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Advanced Optical Technologies

Editor-in-Chief: Pfeffer, Michael

CiteScore 2018: 1.42

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.499
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.346

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Volume 2, Issue 5-6


Holographic wavefront sensor for fast defocus measurement

Andreas Zepp / Szymon Gładysz / Karin Stein
Published Online: 2013-11-27 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/aot-2013-0050


Atmospheric effects significantly influence the propagation of light. Conventional adaptive optics systems, based on Shack-Hartmann sensors (SHS), work well for vertical-path propagation. However, for more challenging scenarios like horizontal-path imaging or free-space laser communications through extended-volume turbulence and strong scintillation, the bandwidth of SHS is insufficient. A promising alternative is the holographic wavefront sensor (HWFS). Our paper deals with some dependencies and limitations of the HWFS. First, we show that the sensitivity of the HWFS is highly dependent on the detector size. The smaller the detector, the more sensitive is the sensor. This has consequences in the photon-starved regime, which would naturally occur when the sensor is operated at the intended MHz speed. Second, we show that uncorrected (or residual) tip/tilt has a large impact on the accuracy of the measurement. We present experimental results of measuring an important and also easily correctable aberration, defocus, with the HWFS.

Keywords: adaptive optics; holographic wavefront sensor; holography; OCIS codes: 010.1080; 010.7350; 090.0090


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About the article

Andreas Zepp

Andreas Zepp graduated in 2005 in Laser Engineering at the University of Applied Sciences Koblenz, Germany. After receiving his MSc degree in Applied Physics, he worked at Fraunhofer FIT in the Biomolecular Optical Systems group (BioMOS) in Sankt Augustin. In 2011, he joined the Adaptive Optics group at Fraunhofer IOSB in Ettlingen, Germany. His research interests are in adaptive optics, optical metrology, analog and digital holography.

Szymon Gładysz

Szymon Gładysz obtained his MSc in Industrial Engineering from Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland, and a PhD in Physics from the National University of Ireland, Galway. He worked as a postdoctoral researcher at NUI, Galway, at the European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany, and at Israel Institute of Technology (Technion) in Haifa. He is currently the Head of the Adaptive Optics Group at Fraunhofer IOSB. His research interests are in adaptive optics, theoretical aspects of light propagation through horizontal-path turbulence, image processing, and speckle statistics.

Karin Stein

Karin Stein is the Head of the Department ‘Signatorics’ at Fraunhofer IOSB. She has been with the Institute (then named FGAN-FfO) since 1991. She obtained her Diploma in Physics and PhD in the field of laser-plasma interaction both from Technical University Darmstadt, Germany. Since 2003, she has been the conference chair of ‘Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems’ at SPIE Remote Sensing Europe. Since 2009, she has been in charge of the organization of all SPIE Remote Sensing symposiums as a co-chair, and since 2011 as the chair. Her research interests are in meteorology, impact of atmosphere on imaging systems, warning sensor technology, and remote sensing.

Corresponding author: Andreas Zepp, Fraunhofer IOSB, SIGNATORICS Gutleuthausstrasse 1, Ettlingen 76275, Germany, e-mail:

Received: 2013-09-01

Accepted: 2013-10-22

Published Online: 2013-11-27

Published in Print: 2013-12-01

Citation Information: Advanced Optical Technologies, Volume 2, Issue 5-6, Pages 433–437, ISSN (Online) 2192-8584, ISSN (Print) 2192-8576, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/aot-2013-0050.

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