Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details

Acta Parasitologica

4 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR increased in 2015: 1.293

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.581
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.780
Impact per Publication (IPP) 2015: 1.132

See all formats and pricing
Volume 58, Issue 3 (Sep 2013)


Susceptibility of Acanthamoeba to multipurpose lens-cleaning solutions

Ana Aguiar
  • Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
  • Email:
/ Caroline Oliveira Silveira
  • Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
  • Email:
/ Mari Todero Winck
  • Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
  • Email:
/ Marilise Rott
  • Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
  • Email:
Published Online: 2013-08-29 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11686-013-0143-9


The present study investigated the susceptibility of Acanthamoeba spp. trophozoites to two multipurpose systems for cleaning and maintenance of contact lenses. Three strains of trophozoites from the ATCC (A. castellani T4, A. castellani Neff, and A. polyphaga) and two Acanthamoeba isolates obtained from swimming pools (PT5 and PO1) were placed in monoxenic culture. To test their survival in cleaning solutions for contact lenses, the trophozoites were exposed for 4 and 24 h to two multipurpose solutions (A and B), and were then inoculated into a new monoxenic culture. Amoebic growth on the plates was observed after 72 h of incubation. Trophozoites from all three ATCC strains and one isolate from a swimming pool (PO1) grew in all plates after 4 h of exposure to solutions A and B. After 24 h, the ATCC strains and the PO1 isolate showed growth in most of the plates treated. Only the PT5 isolate showed susceptibility to both solutions over the time intervals tested. The two solutions were not completely effective against most strains and isolates over the time intervals tested. These results are important, since species of Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in the environment and are potential agents of eye pathologies.

Keywords: Acanthamoeba; multipurpose solutions; keratitis

  • [1] Booton G.C., Visvesvara G.S., Byers T.J., Byers T.J., Kelly D.J., Fuerst P.A. 2005. Identification and distribution of Acanthamoeba species genotypes associated with nonkeratitis infections. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 43, 1689–1693. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.43.4.1689-1693.2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.43.4.1689-1693.2005 [Crossref]

  • [2] BRASIL, 2011. Agência Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitária. Serviçp de Registro de Produtos para Saúde [ANVISA web site]. Available in: www.anvisa.gov.br. Accessed November 7, 2010.

  • [3] Bryan K., Bugant J., Chang T., Chen S., Rosenberg J., Hammond R., McConnell K., Sanderson R., Nakata M., Wakida C., Austin C., Bestudik J., Bordson M.G., Conover C., Granzow L., Rea V., Chu A., Luckman E., Signs K., Harper J., Damrow T., Mosher E., Kruger K., Saheli E., Cassidy M., Hatch J., Weltman A., Garcia Rivera E.J., Garcia Y., Kainer M.A., Archer J., Joslin C., Cernoch P., Jones D., Hamill M., Matoba A., Pflugfelder S., Wilhelmus K., Beavers S., Chen T., Christian K., Cooper M., Dufficy D., Gershman M., Glenshaw M., Hall A., Holzbauer S., Huang A., Langer A., Moore Z., Patel A.S., Carpenter L.R., Schaffzin J., Su J., Trevino I., Weiser T., Wiersma P., Lorick S., Verani J.R. Acanthamoeba keratitis multiple states, 2005–2007 MMWR [CDC web site]. Available in: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/. Accessed October 20, 2010.

  • [4] Carlesso A.M., Artuso G.L., Simonetti A.M., Rott M.B. 2007. Isolation and identification of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae in samples from environments in a public hospital in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, 40, 316–320. DOI: 10.1590/S0037-86822007000300013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0037-86822007000300013 [Web of Science] [Crossref]

  • [5] Caumo K., Frasson A.P., Pens C.J., Panatieri L.F., Frazzon A.P., Rott M.B. 2009. Potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba in swimming pools: a survey in the southern Brazilian city of Porto Alegre. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 103, 477–485. DOI: 10.1179/136485909X451825. http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/136485909X451825 [Web of Science] [Crossref]

  • [6] Caumo K., Rott MB. 2011. Acanthamoeba T3, T4 and T5 in swimming-pool waters from Southern Brazil. Acta Tropica, 117, 233–235. DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2010.12.008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2010.12.008 [Web of Science] [Crossref]

  • [7] Cohen E.J., Buchanan H.W., Laughrea P.A., Adams C.P., Galentine P.G., Visvesvara G.S., Folberg R., Arentsen J.J., Laibson P.R. 1985. Diagnosis and management of Acanthamoeba keratitis. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 100, 389–395.

  • [8] Corsaro D., Venditti D. 2010. Phylogenetic evidence for a new genotype of Acanthamoeba (Amoebozoa, Acanthamoebida). Parasitology Research, 107, 233–238. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-010-1870-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-010-1870-6 [Crossref] [Web of Science]

  • [9] De Carli G.A., Moura H. 2007. Amebas de Vida Livre. In: De Carli GA. 2nd Ed. Parasitologia Clínica, Seleção de Métodos e Técnicas de Laboratório para o Diagnóstico das Parasitoses Humanas. Atheneu, Rio de Janeiro, 417–427.

  • [10] De Jonckheere J.F. 2003. Epidemiological typing of Acanthamoeba strains isolated from keratitis cases in Belgium. Bull Societ Belge Ophtalmology, 287, 27–33.

  • [11] Gast R.J. 2001. Development of Acanthamoeba-specific reverse dotblot and the discovery of a new ribotype. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 48, 609–615. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1550-7408.2001.tb00199.x

  • [12] Hiti K., Walochnik J., Haller-Schober E.M., Faschinger C., Aspöck H. 2002. Viability of Acanthamoeba after exposure to a multipurpose disinfecting contact lens solution and two hydrogen peroxide systems. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 86, 144–146. DOI: 10.1136/bjo.86.2.144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjo.86.2.144 [Crossref]

  • [13] Iovieno A., Oechsler R.A., Ledee D.R., Miller D., Alfonso E.C. 2010. Drug-resistant severe Acanthamoeba keratitis caused by rare T5 Acanthamoeba genotype. Eye & Contact Lens, 36, 183–184. DOI: 10.1097/ICL.0b013e3181da2350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICL.0b013e3181da2350 [Crossref] [Web of Science]

  • [14] Khan N.A., Jarrol E.L., Paget T.A. 2002. Molecular and physiological differentiation between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Acanthamoeba. Current Microbiology, 45, 197–202. DOI: 10.1007/s00284-001-0108-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-001-0108-3 [Crossref]

  • [15] Lipener C., Ray C.B. 2008. Sistemas atuais de cuidado e manutenção de lentes de contato. Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, 71, 9–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-27492008000700003

  • [16] Maghsood A.H., Sissons J., Rezaian M., Nolder D., Warhurst D., Khan N.A. 2005. Acanthamoeba genotypes T4 from the UK and Iran and isolation of the T2 genotype from clinical isolates. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 74, 755–759. DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.45970-0. http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.45970-0 [Crossref]

  • [17] Marciano-Cabral, Cabral G. 2003. Acanthamoeba spp. as agents of diseases in humans. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 16, 273–307. DOI: 10.1128/CMR.16.2.273-307.2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.16.2.273-307.2003 [Crossref]

  • [18] McClellan K., Coster D.J. 1987. Acanthamoebic keratitis diagnosed by paracentesis and biopsy and treated with propamidine. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 71, 734–736. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjo.71.10.734

  • [19] Molmeret M., Horn M., Wagner M., Santic M., Abu Kwaik Y. 2005. Amoebae as training grounds for intracellular bacterials pathogens. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71, 20–28. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.71.1.20-28.2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.71.1.20-28.2005 [Crossref]

  • [20] Morlet N., Duguid G., Radford C., Matheson M., Dart J. 1997. Incidence of Acanthamoeba keratitis associated with contact lens wear. Lancet, 350, 414–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)64138-4

  • [21] Patel A., Hammersmith K. 2008. Contact lens-related microbial keratitis: recent outbreaks. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology, 19, 302–306. DOI: 10.1097/ICU.0b013e3283045e74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICU.0b013e3283045e74 [Crossref] [Web of Science]

  • [22] Pens C.J., da Costa M., Fadanelli C., Caumo K., Rott M. 2008. Acanthamoeba spp. and bacterial contamination in contact lens storage cases and the relationship to user profiles. Parasitology Research, 103, 1241–1245. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-008-1120-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-008-1120-3 [Web of Science] [Crossref]

  • [23] Radfort C.F., Minassian D.C., Dart J.K.G. 2002. Acanthamoeba keratitis in England and Wales: incidence, outcome, and risks factors. Britsh Journal of Ophthalmology, 86, 536–542. DOI: 10.1136/bjo.86.5.536. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjo.86.5.536 [Crossref]

  • [24] Schaumberg D.A., Snow K.K., Dana M.R. 1998. The epidemic of Acanthamoeba keratitis: where do we stand? Cornea, 17, 3–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00003226-199801000-00001

  • [25] Shoff M., Rogerson A., Schatz S., Seal D. 2007.Variable responses of Acanthamoeba strains to three multipurpose lens cleaning solutions. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 84, 202–207. DOI: 10.1097/OPX.0b013e3180339f81. [Crossref]

  • [26] Shoff M.E., Joslin C.E., Tu E.Y., Kubatko L., Fuerst P.A. 2008. Efficacy of contact lens systems against recent clinical and tap water Acanthamoeba isolates. Cornea, 27, 713–719. DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31815e7251. [Crossref]

  • [27] Spanakos G., Tzanetou K., Miltsakakis D., Patsoula E., Malamou-Lada E., Vakalis N.C. 2006. Genotyping of pathogenic Acanthamoeba isolated from clinical samples in Greece — report of a clinical isolate presenting T5 genotype. Parasitology International, 55, 147–149. DOI: 10.1016/j.parint.2005.12.001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2005.12.001 [Crossref]

  • [28] Stothard D.R., Schroeder-Diedrich J.M., Awwad M.H., Gast R.J., Ledee D.R., Rodriguez-Zaragoza S., Dean C.L., Fuerst P.A., Byers T.J. 1998. The evolutionary history of the genus Acanthamoeba and identification of eight new 18S rRNA gene sequence types. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 45, 45–54. DOI: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.1998.tb05068.x. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1550-7408.1998.tb05068.x [Crossref]

  • [29] Theodore F.H., Jakobiec F.A., Juechter K.B., Ma P., Troutman R.C., Panq P.M., Iwamoto T. 1985. The diagnostic value of a ring infiltrate in acanthamoebic keratitis. Ophthalmology, 2, 1471–1479. [Crossref]

  • [30] Walochnick J., Obwaller A., Aspock H. 2000. Correlations between morphological, molecular, biological and physiological characteristics in clinical and nonclinical isolates of Acanthamoeba spp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66, 4408–4413. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.66.10.4408-4413.2000. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.66.10.4408-4413.2000 [Crossref]

  • [31] Yu H.S., Kong H.H., Kim S.Y., Hahn Y.H., Hahn T.W., Chung D.I. 2004. Laboratory investigation of Acanthamoeba lugdunensis from patients with keratitis. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 45, 1418–1426. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.03-0433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.03-0433 [Crossref]

  • [32] Zheng X., Uno T., Goto T., Zhang W., Hill J.H. 2004. Pathogenic Acanthamoeba Induces Apoptosis of Human Corneal Epithelial cells. Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology, 48, 23–29. DOI: 10.1007/s10384-003-0018-y. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10384-003-0018-y [Crossref]

About the article

Published Online: 2013-08-29

Published in Print: 2013-09-01

Citation Information: Acta Parasitologica, ISSN (Online) 1896-1851, ISSN (Print) 1230-2821, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11686-013-0143-9. Export Citation

© 2013 W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, PAS. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in