Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Acta Parasitologica

4 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.039
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.121

CiteScore 2017: 1.17

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.641
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.738

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 59, Issue 4


Gastrointestinal parasites in rural dogs and cats in Selangor and Pahang states in Peninsular Malaysia

Romano Ngui / Soo Lee / Nan Yap / Tiong Tan / Roslan Aidil / Kek Chua / Shafie Aziz / Wan Sulaiman / Arine Ahmad / Rohela Mahmud / Yvonne Lian
Published Online: 2014-09-20 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11686-014-0306-3


To estimate the current prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in dogs and cats, a total of 105 fresh faecal samples were collected from rural areas in Peninsular Malaysia. Each faecal sample was examined for the presence of GI parasites by microscopic examination after formalin-ether concentration technique and for protozoa, trichrome and Ziehl-Neelsen staining were employed. The overall prevalence of GI parasitic infection was 88.6% (95% CI = 82.5–94.7) in which 88.3% of dogs and 89.3% of cats were infected with at least one parasites species, respectively. There were 14 different GI parasites species (nematodes, cestodes and protozoa) detected, including Ancylostoma spp. (62.9%), Toxocara spp. (32.4%), Trichuris vulpis (21.0%), Spirometra spp. (9.5%), Toxascaris leonina (5.7%), Dipylidium caninum (4.8%), Ascaris spp. (2.9%), Hymenolepis diminuta (1.0%) and others. General prevalence of GI parasites showed a significant difference between helminth (84.4%) and protozoa (34.3%) infections. Monoparasitism (38.1%) was less frequent than polyparasitism (46.7%). As several of these GI parasites are recognized as zoonotic agents, the results of this investigation revealed that local populations may be exposed to a broad spectrum of zoonotic agents by means of environmental contamination with dogs and cats faeces and this information should be used to mitigate public health risks. Prevention and control measures have to be taken in order to reduce the prevalence rates especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities where animals live in close proximity to people, poor levels of hygiene and overcrowding together with a lack in veterinary attention and zoonotic awareness.

Keywords: Dogs; Cats; Gastrointestinal helminths and protozoa; rural area; zoonosis

  • [1] Bridger K.E., Whitney H. 2009. Gastrointestinal parasites in dogs from the Island of St. Pierre off the south coast of New foundland. Veterinary Parasitology, 162, 167–170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.02.016Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [2] Bowman D.D., Montgomery S.P., Zajac A.M., Eberhard M.L., Kazacos K.R. 2010. Hookworms of dogs and cats as agents of cutaneous larva migrans. Trends Parasitology, 26, 162–167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2010.01.005Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [3] Calvete C., Lucientes J., Castillo J.A., Estrada R., Gracia M.J., Peribanez M.A., Ferrer M. 1998. Gastrointestinal helminth parasites in stray cats from the mid-Ebro Valley, Spain. Veterinary Parasitology, 75, 235–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017(97)00182-9CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [4] Claerebout E.S., Casaert A.C., Dalemans N., De Wilde N., Levecke B., Vercruysse J., Geurden T. 2009. Giardia and other intestinal parasites in different dog populations in Northern Belgium. Veterinary Parasitology, 161, 41–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.11.024Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [5] Conlan J.V., Sripa B., Attwood S., Newton P.N. 2011. A review of parasitic zoonoses in a changing Southeast Asia. Veterinary Parasitology, 182, 22–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.07.013CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [6] Despommier D. 2003. Toxocariasis: Clinical aspects, epidemiology, medical ecology, and molecular aspects. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 16, 265–272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.16.2.265-272.2003CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [7] Eyles D.E., Jones F.E., Jumper J.R., Drinnon V.P. 1954. Amebic infection in dogs. Journal of Parasitology 40, 163–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3274296CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [8] Gracenea M., Mar Gómez M.S., Torres J. 2009. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter dogs and cats in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain). Acta Parasitologica, 54, 73–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-009-0005-7CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [9] Inpankaew T., Traub R., Thompson R.C., Sukthana Y. 2007. Canine parasitic zoonoses in Bangkok temples. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 38, 247–255. Google Scholar

  • [10] Katagiri S., Oliveira-Sequeira T.C.G. 2008. Prevalence of dog intestinal parasites and risk perception of zoonotic infection by dog owners in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Zoonoses and Pubic Health, 55, 406–413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1863-2378.2008.01163.xCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [11] Kirkpatrick C.E. 1990. Enteric protozoal infections, in greene ce (ed): Infectious diseases of the dog and cat. Philadelphia WB Saunders, 804-814. Google Scholar

  • [12] Lee C.C., Cheng N.A.B.Y., Bohari Y. 1993. Toxocara canis from domestic cats in Kuala Lumpur. Tropical Biomedicine, 10, 79–80. Google Scholar

  • [13] Lindsay D.S., Zajac A.M. 2004. Cryptosporidium infections in cats and dogs. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practising Veterinarian, 26, 864–874. Google Scholar

  • [14] Lorenzini G., Tasca T., De Carli G.A. 2007. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs and cats under veterinary care in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, 44, 137–145. Google Scholar

  • [15] McGlade T.R., Robertson I.D., Elliot A.D., Read C., Thompson R.C. 2003. Gastrointestinal parasites of domestic cats in Perth, Western Australia. Veterinary Parasitology, 117, 251–262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2003.08.010CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [16] Mahdy M.A., Lim Y.A.L., Ngui R., Siti Fatimah M.R., Choy S.H., Yap N.J., Al-Mekhlafi H.M., Jamaiah I., Johari S. 2012. Prevalence and zoonotic potential of canine hookworms in Malaysia. Parasites and Vectors, 5, 88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-5-88CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [17] Martinez-Moreno F.J., Hernandez S., Lopez-Cobos E., Becerra C., Acosta I., Martinez-Moreno A. 2007. Estimation of canine intestinal parasites in Cordoba (Spain) and their risk to public health. Veterinary Parasitology, 143, 7–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.08.004CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [18] Mohd Zain S.N. 2010. Comparative study of the macroparasite communities of stray cats from four urban cities in Peninsular Malaysia. Proceedings of the Fourth ASEAN Congress of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 2010. Google Scholar

  • [19] Ng J., Eastwood K., Durrheim D., Massey P., Walker B., Armson A., Ryan U. 2008. Evidence supporting zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium in rural New South Wales. Experimental Parasitology, 119, 192–195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2008.01.010Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [20] Ngui R., Saidon I., Chow S.C., Rohela M., Lim YAL. 2011. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitism in rural and remote West Malaysia. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 5, e974. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000974CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [21] Ngui R., Lim Y.A.L., Traub R., Mahmud R., Mistam M.S. 2012. Epidemiological and genetic data supporting the transmission of Ancylostoma ceylanicum among human and domestic animals. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 6, e1522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001522CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [22] Oliveira-Sequeira T.C., Amarante A.F., Ferrari T.B., Nunes L.C. 2002. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs from Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology, 103, 19–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017(01)00575-1CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [23] Overgaauw P.A.M., van Zutphen L., Hoek D., Yaya F.O., Roelfsema J., Pinelli E., van Knapen F., Kortbeek L.M. 2009. Zoonotic parasites in fecal samples and fur from dogs and cats in the Netherlands. Veterinary Parasitology, 163, 115–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.03.044Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [24] Papazahariadou M., Founta A., Papadopoulos E., Chilounakis S., Antoniadou-Sotiriadou K., Theodorides Y. 2007. Gastrointestinal parasites of shepherd and hunting dogs in the Serres Prefecture, Northern Greece. Veterinary Parasitology, 148, 170–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2007.05.013Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [25] Paquet-Durand I., Hernandez J., Dolz G., Zuniqa J.J., Schneider T., Epe C. 2007. Prevalence of Toxocara spp., Toxascaris leonina and ancylostomidae in public parks and beaches in different climate zones of Costa Rica. Acta Tropica, 104, 30–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2007.06.011CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [26] Prociv P., Croese J. 1990. Human eosinophilic enteritis caused by dog hookworm Ancylostoma-caninum. Lancet, 335, 1299–1302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(90)91186-ECrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [27] Robertson I.D., Irwin P.J., Lymbery A.J., Thompson R.C. 2000. The role of companion animals in the emergence of parasitic zoonoses. International Journal for Parasitology, 30, 1369–1377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7519(00)00134-XCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [28] Schantz P.M. 1994. Of worms, dogs, and human hosts: Continuing challenges for veterinarians in prevention of human disease. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 204, 1023–1028. Google Scholar

  • [29] Scorza A.V., Duncan C., Miles L., Lappin M.R. 2011. Prevalence of selected zoonotic and vector-borne agents in dogs and cats in Costa Rica. Veterinary Parasitology, 183, 178–183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.06.025CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [30] Shanta C.S., Wan S.P., Kwong K.H. 1980. A survey of the endo and ectoparasites of cats in and around Ipoh, West Malaysia. Malay. Veterinary Journal, 7, 17–27. Google Scholar

  • [31] Shimada A., Muraki Y., Awakura T., Umemura T., Sanekata T., Kuroki T., Ishihara M. 1992. Necrotic colitis associated with Entamoeba histolytica infection in a cat. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 106, 195–199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9975(92)90048-YCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [32] Sommerfelt I.E., Cardillo N., Lopez C., Ribicich M., Gallo C., Franco A. 2006. Prevalence of Toxocara cati and other parasites in cats’ faeces collected from the open spaces of public institutions: Buenos Aires, Argentina. Veterinary Parasitology, 140, 296–301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.03.022CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [33] Soriano S.V., Pierangeli N.B., Roccia I., Bergagna H.F., Lazzarini L.E., Celescinco A., Saiz M.S., Kossman A., Contreras P.A., Arias C., Basualdo J.A. 2010. A wide diversity of zoonotic intestinal parasites infects urban and rural dogs in Neuquen, Patagonia, Argentina. Veterinary Parasitology, 167, 81–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.09.048Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [34] Traub R.J., Inpankaew T., Sutthikornchai C., Sukthana Y., Thompson R.C. 2008. PCR-based coprodiagnostic tools reveal dogs as reservoirs of zoonotic ancylostomiasis caused by Ancylostoma ceylanicum in temple communities in bangkok. Veterinary Parasitology, 155, 67–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.05.001CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [35] Traub R.J., Robertson I.D., Irwin P., Mencke N., Monis P., Thompson R.C.A. 2003. Humans, dogs and parasitic zoonoses — Unravelling the relationships in a remote endemic community in Northeast India using molecular tools. Parasitology Research, 90, S156–S157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-003-0925-3CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [36] Traub R.J., Robertson I.D., Irwin P.J., Mencke N., Thompson R.C.A. 2005. Canine gastrointestinal parasitic zoonoses in India. Trends Parasitology, 21, 42–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2004.10.011CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [37] Wittnich C. 1976. Entamoeba histolytica infection in a German shepherd dog. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 17, 259–263. Google Scholar

  • [38] Xiao L., Fayer R., Ryan U., Upton S.J. 2004. Cryptosporidium taxonomy: Recent advances and implications for public health. Clinical Microbiologyl Reviews, 17, 72–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.17.1.72-97.2004CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [39] Yoshida Y., Okamoto K., Matsuo K., Kwo E.H., Retnasabapathy A. 1973. The occurrence of Ancylostoma braziliense (de Faria, 1910) and Ancylostoma ceylanicum (Looss, 1911) in Malaysia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 4, 498–503. Google Scholar

  • [40] Zhu X.Q., Gasser R.B., Jacobs D.E., Hung G.C., Chilton N.B. 2000. Relationships among some ascaridoid nematodes based on ribosomal DNA sequence data. Parasitology Research, 86, 738–744. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/PL00008561CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2014-09-20

Published in Print: 2014-10-01

Citation Information: Acta Parasitologica, Volume 59, Issue 4, Pages 737–744, ISSN (Online) 1896-1851, ISSN (Print) 1230-2821, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11686-014-0306-3.

Export Citation

© 2014 W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, PAS. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Oswaldo Margarito Torres-Chablé, Ricardo Alfonso García-Herrera, Melchor Hernández-Hernández, Jorge Alonso Peralta-Torres, Nadia Florencia Ojeda-Robertos, Bradley John Blitvich, Carlos Marcial Baak-Baak, Julián Everardo García-Rejón, and Carlos Ignacio Machain-Wiliams
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, 2015, Volume 24, Number 4, Page 432
Thomas Geurden, Adriano F. Vatta, Nathalie Slootmans, Vickie L. King, Dan Lin, Tom McTier, and Douglas Rugg
Veterinary Parasitology, 2017, Volume 238, Page S31
Sandee Tun, Init Ithoi, Rohela Mahmud, Nur Izyan Samsudin, Chua Kek Heng, Lau Yee Ling, and Emmanuel Serrano Ferron
PLOS ONE, 2015, Volume 10, Number 12, Page e0142231
Debapriyo Chakraborty, Sunil Tiwari, D. Mahender Reddy, and Govindhaswamy Umapathy
Journal of Parasitology, 2016, Volume 102, Number 4, Page 463
Fatin Nur Elyana, Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi, Init Ithoi, Awatif M. Abdulsalam, Salwa Dawaki, Nabil A. Nasr, Wahib M. Atroosh, Mohamad Hafiz Abd-Basher, Mona A. Al-Areeqi, Hany Sady, Lahvanya R. Subramaniam, Tengku Shahrul Anuar, Yee Ling Lau, Norhayati Moktar, and Johari Surin
Parasites & Vectors, 2016, Volume 9, Number 1
M.A. Ibrahim, K.A. Gihan, S.M. Aboelhadid, and M.M. Abdel-Rahi
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 2016, Volume 11, Number 6, Page 341

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in