Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Acta Parasitologica

4 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.160
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.185

CiteScore 2016: 1.24

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.532
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.721

Online
ISSN
1896-1851
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 60, Issue 1 (Mar 2014)

Issues

Predominance of Cryptosporidium parvum genotype among diarrheic children from Egypt as an indicator for zoonotic transmission

Maysa Ahmad Eraky / Azza Mohammed-Salah El-Hamshary / Hassan Hassan Hamadto / Kareem Fetouh Abdallah / Wafaa Moustafa Abdel-Hafed / Soha Abdel-Had
Published Online: 2014-12-30 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2015-0004

Abstract

Cryptosporidium is a genus of zoonotic pathogens transmissible from a variety of animals to humans and is a considerable public health concern. It is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in developing and industrialized nations. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis are the main agents of cryptosporidiosis in humans. In this study we identified the genotypes of the Cryptosporidium isolates from clinical samples from diarrheic children using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of the TRAP-C2 gene (Thrompodin Related Adhesive Protein). A total of 430 fecal specimens from 1 to 14 years children were collected from inpatient and outpatient clinics of Benha University, Educational and Children Specialized Hospitals, Benha, Qalubyia, and were microscopically examined for Cryptosporidium spp. All infected samples were also analyzed using nested PCR. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the (266-366 bp) of TRAP-C2 gene was also used to detect and identify Cryptosporidium spp. in PCR- positive samples. The results showed that 50 (11.63%) of the specimens were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. Genomic amplification and restriction digestion of the PCR products by BstETI, Hae III for TRAP-C2 gene restriction enzymes revealed that 82% (41/50) had C. parvum, 12% (6/50) had C. hominis, and three (3/50) samples (6%) had mixed infections. In conclusion, elevated prevalence of C. parvum, suggesting animal-human (zoonotic) transmission and further investigations are required to determine the subgenotypes of C. parvum to clarify the mode of transmission in order to improve the control measures.

Keywords: Cryptosporidium; genotyping; TRAP-C2 gene; children; Egypt

References

  • Abd El Kader N.M., Blanco M.A., Tammamm M.A., Abd El Ghaffar A.B., Osman A., El Sheikh N., Rubio J.M., de Fuentes I. 2011. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in human patients in Cairo, Egypt. Parasitology Research, 110, 161-166. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-011-2465-6CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Abdel-Messih I.A., Wierzba T.F., Abu-Elyazeed R., Ibrahim A.F., Ahmed S.F., Kamal K., Sanders J., Frenck R. 2005. Diarrhea associated with Cryptosporidium parvum among young children of the Nile River Delta in Egypt. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 51, 154-159. DOI: 10.1093/tropej/fmh105CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Adamu H., Petros B., Hailu A., Petry F. 2010. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates from humans in Ethiopia. Acta Tropica, 115, 77-83. DOI. org/10.1016/j.actatropica. 2010.02.003CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Adegbola R.A., Demba E., Deveer G., Todd J. 1994. Cryptosporidium infection in Gambian children less than 5 years of age. Journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 97, 103-107Google Scholar

  • Ajjampur S.S.R., Liakath F.B., Kannan A., Rajendran P., Sarkar R., Moses P.D., Simon A., Agarwal I., Mathew A., et al. 2010. Multisite study of cryptosporidiosis in children with diarrhea in India. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 48, 2075-2081. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.02509-09CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Akiyoshi D.E., Dilo J., Pearson C., Chapman S., Tumwine J., Tzipori S. 2003. Characterization of Cryptosporidium meleagridis of human origin passaged through different host species. Infection and Immunity, 71, 1828-1832. DOI: 10. 1128/IAI.71.4.1828-1832.2003CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bentley C., Laubach H., Spalter J., Ginter E., Jensen L. 2004. Relationship of cryptosporidiosis to abdominal pain and diarrhea in Mayan Indians. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, 46, 235-237. doi.org/10.1590/S0036-4665200 4000400011CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Budu-Amoako E., Greenwood S.J., Dixon B.R., Sweet L., Ang L., Barkema H.W., McClure J.T. 2012. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in humans on prince edward island, Canada: evidence of zoonotic transmission from cattle. Zoonoses Public Health, 59, 424-33. DOI: 10.1111/ j.1863-2378.2012.01474.x CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bushen O.Y., Kohli A., Pinkerton R.C., Dupnik K., Newman R.D., Sears C.L., et al. 2007. Heavy cryptosporidial infections in children in northeast Brazil: comparison of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 101, 378-84Google Scholar

  • Caccio S., Pinter E., Fantini R., Mezzaroma I., Pozio E. 2002. Human infection with Cryptosporidium felis: case report and literature review. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8, 85-86. DOI: 10. 3201/eid0801.010269CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Caccio S.M., Thompson R.C.A., McLauchlin J., Smith H.V. 2005. Unravelling Cryptosporidium and Giardia epidemiology. Trends in Parasitology, 21, 430-437CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cama V.A., Ross J.M., Crawford S., Kawai V., Chavez-Valdez R., Vargas D., et al. 2007. Differences in clinical manifestations among Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in HIV-infected persons. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 196, 684-691. DOI: 10.1086/519842CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Casemore D.P. 1990. Epidemiological aspects of human cryptosporidiosis. Epidemiology and Infection, 104, 1-28CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Certad G., Ngouanesavanh T., Guyot K., Gantois N., Chassat T., Mouray A., Fleurisse L., Pinon A., Cailliez J.C., Dei-Cas E., Creusy C. 2007. Cryptosporidium parvum, a potential cause of colic adenocarcinoma. Infectious Agents and Cancer, 22. DOI:10.1186/1750-9378-2-22PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Chalmers R.M., Elwin K., Thomas A.L., Guy E.C., Mason B. 2009. Long-term Cryptosporidium typing reveals the aetiology and species-specific epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis in England and Wales, 2000 to 2003. Euro Surveill 15, 14Google Scholar

  • Eida A.M., Eida M.M., El-Desoky A. 2009. Pathological studies of different genotypes of human Cryptosporidium Egyptian isolates in experimentally mice. Journal of Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 39, 975-990Google Scholar

  • El-Helaly N.S., Alyb M.M., Attiab S.S. 2012. Detection of Cryptosporidium Infection among Children with Diarrhea. New York Science Journal, 5, 68-76Google Scholar

  • El-Shazly A.M., El-sheikha H.M., Soltan D.M., Mohammad K.A., Morsy T.A. 2007. Protozoal pollution of surface water sources in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. Journal of Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 37, 51-64Google Scholar

  • Elwin K., Chalmers R., Roberts R., Guyl E., Casemore D. 2001. Modification of a rapid method for the identification of gene specific polymorphisms in Cryptosporidium parvum and its application to clinical and epidemiological investigations. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 67, 5581-5584Google Scholar

  • Fall A., Thompson R.C., Hobbs R.P., Morgan-Ryan U. 2003. Morphology is not a reliable tool for delineating species within Cryptosporidium. Journal of Parasitology, 89, 399-402. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/0022-3395(2003)089[0399:MINART] 2.0.CO;2CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fayer R., Morgan U., Upton S.J. 2000. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium: transmission, detection and identification. International Journal for Parasitology, 30, 1305-1322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7519(00)00135-1CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Feltus D.C., Giddings C.W., Schneck B.L., Monson T., Warshauer D., McIvor J.M. 2006. Evidence supporting zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. in Wisconsin. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 44, 4303-4308. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01067-06CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gatei W., Wamae C., Mbae C., Waruru A., Mulinge E., Waithera T., Gatika S.M., Kamwati S.K., Revathi G., Hart C.A. 2006. Cryptosporidiosis: Prevalence, Genotype analysis, and Symptoms associated with infections in children in Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 75, 78-82Google Scholar

  • Geurden T., Levecke B., Caccio S.M., Visser A., De Groote G., Casaert S., Vercruysse J., Claerebout E. 2009. Multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in non-outbreak related cases of diarrhoea in human patients in Belgium. Parasitology, 136, 1161-1168. doi:10.1017/S0031182009990436CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gozdenović E., Mitrović N., Dakić Z., Stojković-Švirtlih N., Dulović O. 2012. Family outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Serbia: case report. Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo, 140, 653-657Google Scholar

  • Hunter P.R., Hughes S., Woodhouse S., Raj N., Syed Q., Chalmers R.M., et al. 2004. Health sequelae of human cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent patients. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 39,504-510. DOI: 10.1086/422649CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kato S., Lindergard G., Mohammed H.O. 2003. Utility of the Cryptosporidium oocysts wall protein (COWP) gene in a nested PCR approach for detection infection in cattle. Veterinary Parasitology, 111,153-59Google Scholar

  • Korpe P.S., Liu Y., Siddique A., Kabir M., Ralston K., Ma J.Z., Haque R., Petri Jr W.A. 2013. Breast Milk Parasite-Specific Antibodies and Protection From Amebiasis and Cryptosporidiosis in Bangladeshi Infants: A Prospective Cohort Study Infectious Diseases, 56, 988-992. . DOI: 10.1093/cid/cis1044.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Leoni F., Amar C., Nichols G., Pedraza-Dia S., McLauchlin J. 2006. Genetic analysis of Cryptosporidium from 2414 humans with diarrhoea in England between 1985 and 2000. Journal Medical Microbiology, 55,703-707. DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.46251-0CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lindo F.J., Levy A.V., Baum K.M., Palmer J.C. 1998. Epidemiology of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis in Jamaica. The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 59, 717-721Google Scholar

  • Liu H., Shen Y., Yin J., Yuan Z., Jiang Y., Xu Y., Pan W., Hu Y., Cao J. 2014. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium, Enterocytozoon, Giardia and Cyclospora in diarrheal outpatients in China. BMC Infectious Diseases, 14, 25. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-25CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Llorente M.T., Clavel A., Goni M.P., Varea M., Seral C., Becerril R., Suarez L., Gomez-Lus R. 2007. Genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium species from humans in Spain. Parasitology International, 56, 201-205. DOI:.org/10.1016/j.parint. 2007.02.003CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Mainali N.R., Quinlan P., Ukaigwe A., Amirishetty S. 2013. Cryptosporidial diarrhea in an immunocompetent adult: role of nitazoxanide. Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspective, 3, 10. DOI: 10.3402/jchimp.v3i3-4.21075CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Mann E.D., Selka L.H., Nayar G.P., Koschik C. 1986. Infection with Cryptosporidium spp. in humans and cattle in Manitoba. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 50, 174-178Google Scholar

  • McLauchlin J., Amar C., Pedraza-Diaz S., Nichols G.L. 2000. Molecular epidemiological analysis of Cryptosporidium spp. in the United Kingdom: results of genotyping Cryptosporidium spp. in 1,705 fecal samples from humans and 105 fecal samples from livestock animals. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38, 3984-3990Google Scholar

  • Morgan-Ryan U.M., Fall A., Ward L.A., Hijjawi N., Sulaiman I., Fayer R., Thompson R.C., Olson M., Lal A., Xiao L. 2002. Cryptosporidium hominis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from Homo sapiens. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 4, 433-440CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Mumtaz S., Jawad Ahmed Ali L. 2010. Frequency of Cryptosporidium infection in children under five years of age having diarrhea in north west of Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9, 1230-1235Google Scholar

  • Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad E.N., Keshavarz A., Taghipour N., Haghighi A., Kazemi B., Athari A. 2011. Genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. in clinical samples: PCR-RFLP analysis of the TRAP-C2 gene. Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench, 4, 29-33Google Scholar

  • O’Handley R.M. 2007. Cryptosporidium parvum infections in cattle: are current perceptions accurate? Trends in Parasitology, 23, 477-480. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2007.08.005CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ong C.S., Eisler D.L., Alikhani A., Fung V.W., Tomblin J., Bowie W.R., Isaac-Renton J.L. 2002. Novel Cryptosporidium genotypes in sporadic cryptosporidiosis cases: first report of human infections with a cervine genotype. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8,263-268. DOI: 10.3201/eid0803. 010194CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Opitz C., Soldati D. 2002. The glideosome’: a dynamic complex powering gliding motion and host cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii. Molecular Microbiology, 45, 597-604PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Pedraza-Diaz S., Amar C., Nichols G.L., McLauchlin J. 2001. Nested polymerase chain reaction for amplification of the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein gene. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7, 49-56CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Peng M.M., Xiao L., Freeman A.R., Arwood M.J., Escalante A.A., Weltman A.C., et al. 1997. Genetic polymorphism among Cryptosporidium parvum isolates evidence of two distinct human transmission cycles. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 3, 567-573PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Putignani L., Possenti A., Cherchi S., Pozio E., Crisanti A., Spano F. 2008. The thrombospondin-related protein CpMIC1 (CpTSP8) belongs to the repertoire of micronemal proteins of Cryptosporidium parvum. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 157, 98-101Google Scholar

  • Samie A., Bessong P.O., Obi C.L., Sevilleja J.E., Stroup S., Houpt E., Guerrant R.L. 2006. Cryptosporidium species: preliminary descriptions of the prevalence and genotype distribution among school children and hospital patients in the Venda region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Experimental Parasitology, 114, 314-322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2006.04.007CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Spano F., Putignani L., Naitza S., Puri C., Wright S., Crisanti A. 1998. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a Cryptosporidium parvum gene encoding a new member of the thrombospondin family. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 92,1 47-162Google Scholar

  • Stroup S.E., Roy S., McHele J., Maro V., Ntabaguzi S., Siddique A., Kang Guerrant R.L., Kirkpatrick B.D., Fayer R., Herbein J., Ward H., Haque R., Houpt E.R. 2006. Real-time PCR detection and speciation of Cryptosporidium infection using Scorpion probes. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 55,1217-1222. DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.46678-0CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sulaiman I.M., Hournal Ofira P.R., Zhou L., Al-Ali F.M., Al-Shelahi F.A., Shweiki H.M. et al. 2005. Unique endemicity of cryptosporidiosis in children in Kuwait. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 43, 2805-2809. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.43.6.2805-2809.2005CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sulaiman I.M., Lal A.A., Xiao L. 2002. Molecular phylogeny and evolutionary relationships of Cryptosporidium parasites at the actin locus. Journal of Parasitology, 88, 388-394. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/0022-3395(2002)088[0388:MPAERO]2.0.CO;2CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • The ANOFEL Cryptosporidium National Network 2010. Laboratorybased surveillance for Cryptosporidium in France, 2006-2009. Euro Surveill, 15, 19642Google Scholar

  • Wegayehu T., Adamu H., Petros B. 2013. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species infections among children and cattle in North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia. BMC Infectious Diseases, 13, 419. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-419CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Xiao L. 2010. Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis: an update. Experimental Parasitology, 124,80-89. DOI: 10. 1016/j.exppara.2009.03.018. Epub 2009 Apr 7CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Xiao L., Bern C., Limor J., Sulaiman I., Roberts J., Checkley W., Cabrera L., Gilman R.H., Lal A.A. 2001. Identification of 5 types of Cryptosporidium parasites in children in Lima, Peru. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 183, 492-497. DOI: 10.1086/318090Google Scholar

  • Xiao L., Feng Y. 2008. Zoonotic cryptosporidiosis. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 52, 309-323. DOI: 10.1111/ j.1574-695X.2008.00377.x. Epub 2008 Jan 18PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Xiao L., Ryan U.M. 2004. Cryptosporidiosis: an update in molecular epidemiology. Current opinion in infectious diseases, 17, 483-90PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Yoder J.S., Beach M.J. 2007. Cryptosporidiosis surveillance-United States, 2003-2005. MMWR Surveill Summ, 56, 1-10 Youssef F.G., Adib I., Riddle M.S., Schlett C.D. 2008. A review of cryptosporidiosis in Egypt. Journal of Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 38, 9-28 Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2014-05-16

Revised: 2014-07-09

Accepted: 2014-08-25

Published Online: 2014-12-30

Published in Print: 2014-03-01


Citation Information: Acta Parasitologica, ISSN (Online) 1896-1851, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2015-0004.

Export Citation

© 2015. Copyright Clearance Center

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Aashima Dabas, Dheeraj Shah, Shinjini Bhatnagar, and Rakesh Lodha
Indian Pediatrics, 2017, Volume 54, Number 4, Page 299
[2]
Sylvia Afriyie Squire and Una Ryan
Parasites & Vectors, 2017, Volume 10, Number 1

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in