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Acta Parasitologica

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Volume 60, Issue 4


The infection of reintroduced ruminants – Bison bonasus and Alces alces – with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in northern Poland

Grzegorz Karbowiak
  • Corresponding author
  • W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw, Poland
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  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Bronislava Víchová / Joanna Werszko
  • W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw, Poland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Aleksander W. Demiaszkiewicz
  • W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw, Poland
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  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Anna M. Pyziel
  • W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw, Poland
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/ Hubert Sytykiewicz / Tomasz Szewczyk / Branislav Peťko
Published Online: 2015-09-25 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2015-0091


The north-eastern part of Poland is considered an area of high risk for infection with tick-borne diseases, including with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agents. The etiological agent of HGE is Anaplasma phagocytophilum. As the animal reservoir for A. phagocytophilum in the environment serve the species from Cervidae and Bovidae families. European bison (Bison bonasus) and elk (Alces alces) are the big ruminant species, reintroduced to the forests of Middle Europe after many decades of absence. In the foci of zoonotic diseases they are able to play a role as natural reservoir to pathogens, however, their status as protected animals means their study has been rare and fragmentary. The studies of B. bonasus were conducted in Białowieża Primeval Forest and A. alces in Biebrza National Park. PCR amplifications were performed using primers amplifing the end of the groES gene, the intergenic spacer and approximately two-thirds of the groEL gene in the first round, and primers that span a 395-bp region of the groEL gene were used in the second round. The positive results were obtained in B. bonasus and A. alces, the prevalence of infection was 66.7 and 20.0%, respectively. Randomly selected samples were sequenced, sequences were compared with GenBank entries using Blast N2.2.13 and determined as A. phagocytophilum. The results presented herein are the first record of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in A. alces, and at the same time confirm the previous observations regarding the infection of B. bonasus with A. phagocytophilum.

Keywords: Anaplasma phagocytophilum; Bison bonasus; Alces alces


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About the article

Received: 2015-04-17

Revised: 2015-04-22

Accepted: 2015-05-12

Published Online: 2015-09-25

Published in Print: 2015-12-01

Citation Information: Acta Parasitologica, Volume 60, Issue 4, Pages 645–648, ISSN (Online) 1896-1851, ISSN (Print) 1230-2821, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2015-0091.

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