Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Acta Parasitologica

4 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.039
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.121

CiteScore 2017: 1.17

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.641
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.738

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 61, Issue 1


Diagnostic value of semi-purified antigens of hydatid cyst fluid in human cystic echinococcosis

Wissal Iraqi
Published Online: 2015-12-30 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2016-0019


Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) is an infection caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. The diagnosis of this disease has been problematic. Serological tests detecting antibodies against E. granulosus are the most popular and mainly use the crude Hydatid Cyst Fluid (HCF) or its components, Ag 5 and B. However, the diagnostic value of these tests is limited by the problems of specificity and/or sensitivity. The use of purified HCF antigens could be more helpful in the serodiagnosis of CE compared to the whole HCF. In the present study, we have evaluated the diagnostic value of semi-purified antigens using ELISA tests. Our results have shown that the 53 KDa antigen gave the best specificity (97.5%) and sensitivity (80%). We have also used Western Blot technique to analyze the serological profile against HCF. The results have confirmed that the most immunogenic component of HCF is the Ag 5.

Keywords : Diagnosis; Echinococcus granulosus; hydatidosis; ELISA; Western Blot


  • Allen J.E., Maizels R.M. 2011. Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths. Nature Reviews Immunology, 1, 375-388. DOI: 10.1038/nri2992Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Anonymous. 1993. L’incidence chirurgicale de l’hydatidose en Tunisie (1988-1992). Rapport de la Direction des Soins et de Santé de Base, Tunis-Tunisie-Ministere de la santé publique, (In French) Google Scholar

  • Aziz A., Zhang W., Lin J., Loukas A., McManus D.P., Mulvenna J. 2001. Proteomic characterisation of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst fluid from sheep, cattle and humans. Journal of Proteomics, Aug 24; 74, 1560-72. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot. 2011.02.021Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bonifacino R., Malgor R., Barbeito R., Balleste R., Rodriguez J., Botto C., klug F. 1991. Seroprevalence of Echinococcus granulosus infection in a Uruguayan rural human population. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 85, 769-772. DOI: 10.1016/0035-9203(91)90450-D CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Chamekh M., Facon B., Dissous C., Haque A., Capron A. 1990. Use of monoclonal antibody specific for a protein epitope of Echinococcus granulosus antigen 5 in a competitive antibody radioimmunoassay for diagnosis of hydatid disease. Journal of Immunological Methods, 134, 129-137. DOI: 10.1016/ 0022-1759(90)90121-B CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Craig P.S., Nelson G.S. 1984. The detection of circulating antigen in human hydatid disease. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 78, 219-227Google Scholar

  • Craig P.S. (1986). Detection of specific circulating antigen, immune complexes and antibodies in human hydatidosis from Turkana (Kenya) and Great Britain, by enzyme-immunoassay. Parasite Immunology, 8, 171-188. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3024.1986. tb00843.x CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Daeki A.O., Craig P.S., Shambesh M.K. 2000. IgG-subclass antibody responses and the natural history of hepatic cystic echinococcosis in asymptomatic patients. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 94, 319-328Google Scholar

  • Di Felice G., Pini C., Afferni C., Vicari G. 1986. Purification and partial characterization of the major antigen of Echinococcus granulosus (Antigen 5) with monoclonal antibodies. Molecular Biochemical Parasitology, 20, 133-42. DOI: 10.1016/ 0166-6851(86)90025-3CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Dunne D.W., Grabowska A.M., Fulford A.J., Kariuki J.G., Langley J.H. 1988. Human antibody responses to Shistosoma mansoni: the influence of epitopes shared between different life-cycle stages on the response to the schistosomulum. European Journal of Immunology, 18, 123-131CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Jin Y., Anvarov K., Khajibaev A, Hong S., Hong S.T. 2013. Serodiagnosis of Echinococcosis by ELISA using Cystic Fluid from Uzbekistan Sheep. Korean Journal of Parasitology, Jun; 51: 313-317. DOI: 10.3347/kjp.2013.51.3.313Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kanwar J.R., Vinayak V.K. 1992. The significance of free and immune- complexed hydatid specific antigen(s) as an immunodiagnostic tool for human hydatidosis. Journal of Medical Microbiololgy: 396-403. DOI: 10.1099/00222615-37-6-396CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kilani M., Lahmar S., Jemli M.H. Darghouth M.A., Jomaa I, Diouani F., Ben Miled L., Iraqi W., Ben Ismail R. 1997. Prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus in captured dogs in Tunisia (parasitic necropsy). 18eme congres international d’Hydatidologie, Novembre; Lisbonne-Portugal Google Scholar

  • Laemmli U.K. 1970. Cleavage of structural protein during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature, 227: 680-685. DOI: 10.1038/227680a0 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lahmar S., Boufana B.S., Inoubli S., Guadraoui M., Dhibi M., Bradshaw H., Craig P.S. 2009a. Echinococcus in the wild carnivores and stray dogs of northern Tunisia: the results of a pilot survey. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 103: 323-31. DOI: 10.1179/136485909X440836CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Lahmar S., Rebai W., Boufana B.S., Craig P.S., Ksantini R., Daghfous A., Chebbi F., Fteriche F., Bedioui H., Jouini M., Dhibi M., Makni A., Ayadi M.S, Ammous A., Kacem M.J., Ben Safta Z. 2009b. Cystic echinococcosis in Tunisia: Analysis of hydatid cysts that have been surgically removed from patients. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 103: 593-604. DOI: 10.1179/000349809X12502035776153CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Leggatt G.R., McManus D.P. 1992. Identification and diagnostic value of a major antibody epitope on the 12 kDa antigen from Echinococcus granulosus (hydatid disease) cyst fluid. Parasite Immunology, 16, 87-96. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3024.1994. tb00327.x CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Leggatt G.R., Yang W., McManus D.P. 1992. Serological evaluation of the 12 kDa subunit of antigen B in Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid by immuno-blot analysis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 86: 189-192. DOI: 10.1016/0035-9203(92)90566-U CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lightowlers M.W., Liu D., Haralambous A., Rickard M.D. 1989. Subunit composition and specificity of the major cyst fluid antigen of Echinococcus granulosus. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 37, 171-182. DOI: 10.1016/0166-6851(89)90149-7CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lowry O.H., Rosbrough N.J., Farr A.L., Randall R.J. 1951. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 193, 265-275Google Scholar

  • Maddison S.E., Slemenda S.B., Shantz P.M., Fried J.A., Wilson M., Tsang, V.C.W. 1989. A specific diagnosis antigen of Echinococcus granulosus with an apparent molecular weight of 8 kDa. American Journal of Medicine and Hygiene, 40, 377-383Google Scholar

  • Moro P.L, Bonifacio N., Gilman R.H., Lopera L., Silva B., Takumoto R., Verastegui M., Cabrera L. 1999. Field diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection among intermediate and definitive hosts in an endemic focus of human cystic echinococcosis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Nov-Dec; 93, 611-615. DOI: 10.1016/S0035-9203(99)90068-8CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Moro P.L., Garcia H.H., Gonzales A.E., Bonilla J.J., Verastegui M., Gilma R.H. 2005. Screening for cystic echinococcosis in an endemic region of Peru using portable ultrasonography and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Parasitology Research, 6, 242-246. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-005-1350-6CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • M’rad S., Oudni-M’rad M., Boubaker G., Bouazzi L., Gorcii M., Nouri A., Mezhoud H., Babba H. 2012. Retrospective study of the distribution and the fertility of hydatid cysts in the child in Tunisia. Pathologie Biologie (Paris), Jun; 60, 166-9. DOI:10.1016/j.patbio.2011.03.002CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Ortona E., Rigano R., Margutti P., Notargiacomo S., Ioppolo S., Vaccari S., Barca S., Brigitta Buttari B., Profumo E., Teggi A., Siracusano A. 2000. Native and recombinant antigens in the immunodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis. Parasite Immunology, 22, 553-559. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3024.2000.00336.x CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ortona E., Rigano R., Buttari B., Delunardo F., Ioppolo S., Margutti P., Profumo E., Teggi A., Vaccari S., Siracusano A. 2003. An update on immunodiagnosis of cystic echinococcosis. Acta Tropica, 85, 165-71. DOI: 10.1016/S0001-706X(02)00225-5 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Pfister M., Gottstein B., Kretzchmer R., Cerny T., Cerny A. 2001. Elevated carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) in patients with Echinococcus infection. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 39, 527-30. DOI: 10.1515/CCLM.2001.088CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Profumo E., Ortona E., Rigano R., Gioia I, Notargiacomo S., Ippolo S., Siracusano A. 1994. Cellular and humoral responses to antigenic subunit of Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid in hydatid patients. Parasite Immunology, 16, 393-398. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3024.1994.tb00366.x CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Reiterová K., Auer H., Altintaś N., Yolasigmaz A.S. 2014. Evaluation of purified antigen fraction in the immunodiagnosis of cystic echinococcosis. Parasitology Research, 113, 2861-2867. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-014-3947-0Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sadjjadi S.M., Abidi H., Sarkari B., Izadpanah A., Kazemian S. 2007. Evaluation of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, utilizing native antigen B for serodiagnosis of human hydatidosis. Iranian Journal of Immunology, Sep; 4:167-72Google Scholar

  • Shephered J.C., McManus D.P. 1987. Specific and cross-reactive antigens of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst fluid. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 25, 143-154. DOI: 10.1016/0166-6851(87)90003-X CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Siracusano A., Ioppolo S., Notargiacomo S., Ortona E., Rigano R., Teggi, A., De Rosa F., Vicari G. 1991. Detection of antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus major antigens and their subunits by immunoblotting. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 85, 239-243. DOI: 10.1016/0035-9203(91)90039-2CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Teggi A. 2004. An up-to-date on clinical management of human cystic echinococcosis. Parasitologia, Dec; 46, 405-7 Towbin H., Staehlin T. and Gordan J. 1979. Electrophoretic transfer of protein from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: Procedure and some applications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 76, 4350-4354. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.76.9.4350 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Virginio V.G., Hernandez A., Rott M.B, Monteiro K.M., Zondonai A.F., Nieto, A., Ferreira H.B. 2003. A set of recombinant antigens from Echinococcus granulosus with potential for use in the immunodiagnosis of human cystic hydatid disease. Clinical Experimental Immunology, May; 132, 309-315. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2249.2003.02123.x CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wen H., New R.R.C., Craig P.S. 1993. Diagnosis and treatment of human hydatidosis. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 35, 565-574. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.1993.tb04182.x CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • World Health Organization. 2001. PAIR: Puncture, Aspiration, Injection, Re-Aspiration. An option for the treatment of Cystic Echinococcosis. WHO/CDS/CSR/APH/2001.6Google Scholar

  • World Health Organization. 2013. Echinococcosis - WHO Factsheet No 377; March Yarzabal L.A., Dupas H., Bout D.T., Capron A.R. 1976. Echinococcus granulosus: The distribution of hydatid fluid antigens in the tissue of the larval stage. I: Localisation of the specific antigen of hydatid fluid (Antigen 5). Experimental Parasitology, 40, 391-396Google Scholar

  • Yarzabal L.A., Dupas H., Bout D.T., Naquira F.R., Capron A.R. 1977. Echinococcus granulosus: The distribution of hydatid fluid antigens in the tissue of the larval stage. II: Localization of the thermostable lipoprotein of parasitic origin (Antigen B). Experimental Parasitology, 42, 115-120 Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2015-04-07

Revised: 2015-08-28

Accepted: 2015-10-07

Published Online: 2015-12-30

Published in Print: 2016-01-01

Citation Information: Acta Parasitologica, Volume 61, Issue 1, Pages 144–150, ISSN (Online) 1896-1851, ISSN (Print) 1230-2821, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2016-0019.

Export Citation

© 2016.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Xingju Song, Dandan Hu, Min Yan, Yu Wang, Ning Wang, Xiaobin Gu, and Guangyou Yang
Scientific Reports, 2017, Volume 7, Number 1

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in