Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Acta Parasitologica

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.039
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.121

CiteScore 2017: 1.17

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.641
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.738

More options …
Volume 61, Issue 2


Endoparasitic fauna of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) in Serbia

Tamara Ilić / Zsolt Becskei
  • Corresponding author
  • Department for Animal Breeding and Genetics, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Serbia
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Tamaš Petrović / Vladimir Polaček / Bojan Ristić / Siniša Milić / Predrag Stepanović
  • Department for equine, small animal, poultry and wild animal diseases, University of Belgrade Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Serbia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Katarina Radisavljević
  • Department of Animal Hygiene, University of Belgrade Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Belgrade, Serbia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Sanda Dimitrijević
Published Online: 2016-03-30 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2016-0051


Wild canides have a high epizootiological – epidemiological significance, considering that they are hosts for some parasites which spread vector born diseases. Increased frequency of certain interactions between domestic and wild canides increases the risk of occurrence, spreading and maintaining the infection of parasitic etiology in domestic canides. The research was conducted in 232 wild canides (172 red foxes and 60 golden jackals). The examined material was sampled from foxes and jackals, which were hunted down between 2010 and 2014, from 8 epizootiological areas of Serbia (North-Bačka, West-Bačka, Southern-Banat, Moravički, Zlatiborski, Raški, Rasinski and Zaječarski district). On completing the parasitological dissection and the coprological diagnostics, in wild canides protozoa from the genus Isospora were identified, 3 species of trematoda (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum and Metagonimus yokogawai), cestods from the genus Taenia and 5 species of nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostomatidae, Trichuris vulpis and Capillaria aerophila). The finding of M. yokogawai in golden jackals were, to the best of our knowledge, one of the first diagnosed cases of metagonimosis in golden jackals in Serbia. The continued monitoring of the parasitic fauna of wild canides is needed to establish the widespread of the zoonoses in different regions of Serbia, because they present the reservoirs and/or sources of these infections.

Keywords: Red foxes; golden jackals; endoparasites; epizootiology; Serbia


  • Abdulaziz N.A., Osama B.M., Sawsan A.O. 2011. Gastrointestinal parasites and their prevalence in the Arabian red fox (Vulpes vulpes arabica) from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Veterinary Parasitology, 180, 336–339. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.03.038CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Al-Sabi M.N.S., Kapel C.M.O. 2011. Multiplex PCR identification of Taenia spp in rodents and carnivores. Parasitology Research, 109, 1293–1298. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-011-2373-9CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Al-Sabi M.N.S., Halasa T., Kapel C.M.O. 2014. Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminthes and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark. Acta Parasitologica, 59, 98–107. DOI: 10.2478/s11686-0140214-6CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Armua-Fernandez M.T., Nonaka N., Sakurai T., Nakamura S., Gottstein B., Deplazes P., Phiri I.G.K., Katakura K., Aku Y. 2011. Development of PCR/dot blot assay for specific detection and differentiation of taeniid cestode eggs in canids. Parasitology International, 60, 84–89. DOI: 10.1016/j.parint.2010.11.005CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Arnold J., Humer A., Heltai M., Murariu D., Spassov N., Hackländer K. 2012. Current status and distribution of golden jackals Canis aureus in Europe. Mammal Review, 42, 1–11. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2907.2011.00185.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Aubry B.K., Statham J.M., Sacks N.B., Perrine D.J., Wisley M.S. 2009. Phylogeography of the North American red fox: vicariance in Pleistocene forest refugia. Molecular Ecology, 18, 2668–2686. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04222.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Auer H. 2011. Jagdbares wild als parasitäre Infektionsquelle für den Menschen in Österreich. Wien. Wiener Tierärztliche MonatsschriftVeterinary Medicine Austria, 98, 245–250Google Scholar

  • Borecka A., Gawor J., Ziêba F. 2013. A survey of intestinal helminths in wild carnivores from the Tatra National Park, southern Poland. Annals of Parasitology, 59, 169–172. ISSN: 00435163; ICID:1115882Google Scholar

  • Cakić P, Paunović M., Stojanović B., Ðikanović V., Kulišić Z. 2007. Metagonimus yokogawai, a new parasitic trematoda species in ichtyoparasitofauna of the Serbia. Acta Veterinaria Belgrade, 57, 537–543. DOI: 10.2298/AVB0706537CCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ćirović D., Pavlović I., Penezić A., Kulišić Z., Selaković S. 2013. Levels of infection of intestinal helminth species in the golden jackal Canis aureus from Serbia. Journal of Helminthology, 13, 1–6. DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X13000552CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Čolović-Čalovski I., Jekić A., Stevanović O., Dubljanin E., Kulišić Z., Džamić A. 2014. Anti-Toxocara Antibodies in Patients with Suspected Visceral Larva Migrans and Evaluation of Environmental Risk of Human Infection in Belgrade, Serbia. Archives of Biological Science Belgrade, 66, 545–551. DOI: 10.2298/ABS1402545ÈCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cvetković J., Teodorović V., Gianluca M., Vasilev D., Vasilev S., Ćirović D., Sofronić-Milosavljević Lj. 2011. First report of Thichinella britovi in Serbia. Acta Parasitologica, 56, 232–235. DOI: 10.2478/s11686-011-0022-1CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Di Cerbo R.A., Manfredi T.M., Bregoli M., Ferro Milone N., Cova M. 2008. Wild carnivores as source of zoonotic helminths in north-eastern Italy. Helminthologia, 45, 1, 13–19. DOI: 10.2478/s11687-008-0002-7CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Duscher G., Kübber-Heiss A., Richter B., Suchentrunk F. 2013. A golden jackal (Canis aureus) from Austria bearing Hepatozoon canis – import due to immigration into a non-endemic area? Ticks and Tick Borne Diseases, 4, 133–137. DOI: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2012.10.040CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Duscher G., Pleydell D., Prosl H., Joachim A. 2006. Echinococcus multilocularis in Austrian foxes from 1991 until 2004. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. B, Infectious Diseases and Veterinary Public Health, 53, 138–144. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0450.2006. 00930.xGoogle Scholar

  • Duscher G., Winkelmayer R., Prosl H. 2005. Feral dissemination in areas with Trichinella found in foxes on Austria. Wiener Tierärztliche MonatsschriftVeterinary Medicine Austria, 92, 315–321. (In German)Google Scholar

  • Duscher G. 2011. The Dunkersche Muskelegel – Alaria alata at Red Fox in Austria in relation to the occurrence of Boars. Wiener Tierärztliche MonatsschriftVeterinary Medicine Austria, 98, 251–254. (In German)Google Scholar

  • Duscher G.G., Leschnik M., Fuehrer P.H., Joachim A. 2014. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, Available online 12 December 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijppaw.2014.12.001Google Scholar

  • Gavrilović P., Blitva-Robertson G., Özvegy J., Kiskároly F., Becskei Zs. 2015. Case report of dirofilariasis in grey wolf in Serbia. Acta Parasitologica, 60, 175–178. DOI: 10.1515/ap-2015-0025CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hildebrand J., Popio³ek M., Zaleœny G., Piróg A. 2011. A record of Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Rudolphi, 1819) (Digenea, Opisthorchiidae) in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra L.) from Poland. Wiadomooeci Parazytologiczne, 57, 151–154Google Scholar

  • Hofer S., Gloor S., Müller U., Mathis A., Hegglin D., Deplazes P. 2000. High prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in urban red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and voles (Arvicola terrestris) in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. Parasitology, 120, 135– 142 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/Google Scholar

  • Ilić T., Savić S., Dimitrijević S. 2012. Epizotio-epidemiological importance of parasitic infection in wild canides. In Serbian. Veterinarski Glasnik, 66, 299–309. DOI: 10.2298/VETG L1204299. (In Serbian)CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Jakšić S., Uhitil S., Vuèemilo M. 2002. Nachweis von Mesozerkarien des Saugwurm Alaria alata im Wildschweinefleisch. Zeitschrift fur Jagdwissenschaft, 48, 203–207Google Scholar

  • Karbowiak G., Majláthová V., Hapunik J., Pet’ko B., Wita I. 2010. Apicomplexan parasites of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in northeastern Poland. Acta Parasitologica, 55, 210–214. DOI: 10.2478/s11686-010-0030-6CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kirkova Z., Georgieva D., Raychev E. 2006. Study on the prevalence of trichurosis in different categories of dogs and wild carnivores. Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 9, 141–147Google Scholar

  • Krystufek B., Murariu D., Kurtonur C. 1997. Present distribution of the golden jackal Canis aureus in the Balkans and adjacent regions. Mammal Review, 27, 109–114. DOI: 10.1111/j.13652907.1997.tb00375.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Krystufek B., Tvrtkovic N. 1990. Variability and identity of the jackals (Canis aureus) of Dalmatia. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 91 (B), 7–25.Google Scholar

  • Lalošević V., Lalošević D., Čapo I., Simin V., Galfi A., Traversa D. 2013. High infection rate of zoonotic Eucoleus aerophilus infection in foxes from Serbia. Parasite, 20, 1–5. DOI: 10.1051/ parasite/2012003CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lozanić M.B. 1965. Contribution to the knowledge of helminths of foxes (Vulpes vulpes L.) from the hunting areas near Belgrade. Doctoral dissertation. In Serbian. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of BelgradeGoogle Scholar

  • Macpherson C.N.L. 2013. The epidemiology and public health importance of toxocariasis: a zoonosis of global importance. International Journal for Parasitology, 43, 999–1008. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2013.07.004CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Majláthová V., Hurníková Z., Majláth I., Petko B. 2007. Hepatozoon canis infection in Slovakia: imported or autochthonous? Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 7, 199–202. DOI: 10.1089/vbz.2006.0598CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Manke K.J., Stoye M. 1998. Parasitological investigations on Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the northern parts of the country Schleswig-Holstein. Tierärztliche Umschau, 53, 207–214. (In Greman)Google Scholar

  • Márquez-Navarro A., García-Bracamontes G., Álvarez-Fernández E.B., Ávila-Caballero P.L., Santos-Aranda I., Díaz-Chiguer L.D., Sánchez-Manzano M.R., Rodríguez-Bataz E., Nogueda-Torres B. 2012. Trichuris vulpis (Froelich, 1789) Infection in a Child: A Case Report. Korean Journal of Parasitology, 50, 69–71. DOI: 10.3347/kjp.2012.50.1.69CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Masuda Y., Kishimoto T., Ito H., Tsuji M. 1987. Visceral larva migrans caused by Trichuris vulpis presenting as a pulmonary mass. Thorax, 42, 990–991. PMC461067Google Scholar

  • Milenković M., Habijan-Mikeš V., Matić R. 2006. Cases of spontaneous interbreeding of wolf and domestic dog in the region of southeast Banat (Serbia). Archives of Biological Science Belgrade, 58, 225–231. UDC 599.742.13.082.26 (497.113 Banat)Google Scholar

  • Moehl K., Grosse K., Hamedy A., Wuste T., Kabelitz P., Lucker E. 2009. Biology of Alaria spp. and human exposition risk to Alaria mesocercariae – a review Parasitology Research, 105, 1–15. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-009-1444-7CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • OIE 2005. Taenia Infections: Taeniasis, Cysticercosis, Neurocysticercosis, Coenurosis, Neurocoenurosis. http://www.cfsph. iastate. edu/Factsheets/pdfs/taenia.pdf. Accessed 16–5, 2013Google Scholar

  • Pavlović I. 1993. Helminths of foxes (Vulpes vulpes L.) from the hunting areas around Belgrade. Doctoral dissertation. In Serbian. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of BelgradeGoogle Scholar

  • Pavlović I. i Kulišić Z. 1994. Prevalence of askarides in dogs and foxes in the Belgrade area. Proceedings Book of the VII. Veterinary Conference in Serbia, Zlatibor, pp. 28. (in Serbian)Google Scholar

  • Pavlović I. and Kulišić Z. 2001. Trematode in foxes (Vulpes vulpes L.) caught in the area of Belgrade. Veterinarski Glasnik 55, 35–40. eISSN 24060771Google Scholar

  • Pavlović I., Kulišić Z., Milutinović M. 1997. The role of foxes (Vulpes vulpes L.) in the epizootiology and epidemiology of nematode parasitic zoonozes. Acta Veterinaria 47, 177–182. ISSN:0567-8315Google Scholar

  • Pavlović I., Tambur Z., Doder R., Kulišić Z., Jakić-Dimić D. 2008. The role of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes L.) in the epidemiology of zoonotic tapeworms of the genus Mesocestoides (Cestoda: Cyclophilidae). Veterinaria 57, 109–117. ISSN:0372–6827.Google Scholar

  • Pavlović I., Valter D., Erski-Biljić M. 1998. The role of foxes (Vulpes vulpes L.) in the epizootiology of trematoda parasitic zoonoses. Abstracts Book of the 4th International Meeting of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. Guilin, PR China, pp. 76Google Scholar

  • Petrović J., Pušić I., Apić J., Milanov D., Grgić Ž., Ðorðević V., Matekalo-Sverak V. 2012. Silvatic trichinellosis-the role of wild animals in the spreading of trichinelosis in Serbia. Veterinarski Glasnik, 66, 175–183. DOI: 10.2298/VETGL 120417. (In Serbian)CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Poeppl W., Herkner H., Tobudic S., Faas A., Mooseder G., Burgmann H., Auer H. 2013. Exposure to Echinococcus multilocularis, Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati in Austria: a nationwide cross-sectional seroprevalence study. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 13, 1–6. DOI: 10.1089/vbz.2012.1283CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Portier J., Jouet D., Ferté H., Gibout O., Heckmann A., Boireau P., Vallée I. 2011. New data in France on the trematode Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) obtained during Trichinella inspections. Parasite, 18, 271–275. DOI: 10.1051/parasite/2011183271CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Považan Ð., Ðurić M., Uzurov-Dinić V., Lalošević D., Lalošević V., Sečen S., Považan A. 2011. Toxocariasis in an adult men with the migratory lung infiltrate and eosinofilia. In Serbian. Vojnosanitetski Pregled, 68, 881–885. DOI: 10.2298/ VSP1110881P. (In Serbian)CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Razmjoo M., Bahrami M.A., Shamsollahi M. 2014. Seroepidemiological Survey of Important Parasitic Infections of Wild Carnivores. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research, 2, 783–792Google Scholar

  • Saeed S.I., Kapel C.M.O. 2006. Population dynamics and epidemiology of Toxocara canis in Danish red foxes. Journal of Parasitology, 92, 1196-1201. DOI: 10.1645/GE-720R.1CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sherrard-Smith E., Cable J., Chadwick A.E. 2009. Distribution of Eurasian otter biliary parasites, Pseudamphistomum truncatum and Metorchis albidus (Family Opisthorchiidae), in England and Wale. Parasitology, 136, 1015–1022. DOI: 10.1017/ S0031182009006362CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Smith G.C., Gangadharan B., Taylor Z., Laurenson M.K., Bradshaw H., Hide G., Hughes J.M., Dinkel A., Romige T., Craig P.S. 2003. Prevalence of zoonotic important parasites in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Great Britain. Veterinary Parasitology, 118, 133–142. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2003.09.017CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Teacher G.F.A., Thomas A.J., Barnes I. 2011. Modern and ancient red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Europe show an unusual lack of geographical and temporal structuring, and differing responses within the carnivores to historical climatic change. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11, 214–223. DOI: 10.1186/1471-214811-214CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Torina A., Blanda V., Antoci F., Scimeca S., D’Agostino R., Scariano E., Piazza A., Galluzzo P., Giudice E., Caracappa S. 2013. A molecular survey of Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia canis and Babesia microti in foxes and fleas from Sicily. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 60, 125–130. DOI: 10.1111/tbed.12137CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Verster A. 1969. A taxonomic revision of the genus Tenia linnaeus,1758s. Ondertepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 36, 3–58Google Scholar

  • Vergles Rataj A., Posedi J., Žele D., Vengušt D. 2013. Intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 61, 454–462. DOI: 10.1556/AVet.2013.029CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Zachos E.F., Cirović D., Kirschning J., Otto M., Hartl B.G., Petersen B., Honnen A. 2009. Genetic Variability, Differentiation, and Founder Effect in Golden Jackals (Canis aureus) from Serbia as Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA and Nuclear Microsatellite Loci. Biochemical Genetics, 47, 241–250. DOI: 10.1007/s10528-009-9221-yCrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2015-06-28

Revised: 2015-11-15

Accepted: 2015-12-31

Published Online: 2016-03-30

Published in Print: 2016-06-01

Citation Information: Acta Parasitologica, Volume 61, Issue 2, Pages 389–396, ISSN (Online) 1896-1851, ISSN (Print) 1230-2821, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2016-0051.

Export Citation

© W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, PAS.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Călin Mircea Gherman and Andrei Daniel Mihalca
Parasites & Vectors, 2017, Volume 10, Number 1
Dušan Lalošević, Vesna Lalošević, Verica Simin, Milan Miljević, Borislav Čabrilo, and Olivera Bjelić Čabrilo
European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2016, Volume 62, Number 6, Page 793

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in