Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Acta Parasitologica

4 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.039
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.121

CiteScore 2017: 1.17

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.641
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.738

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 61, Issue 4


First report of mixed Entamoeba polecki (ST 1) and E. suis infection in piglets shedding abnormalfeces by histopathological and molecular surveys

Makoto Matsubayashi
  • National Institute of Animal Health, National Agricultural and Food Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305–0856, Japan
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Yuri Sasagawa
  • Chuou Animal Health and Hygiene Service Center, Niigata Prefecture, Nishikan-ku, Niigata 959-0423, Japan
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Tsunehiko Aita
  • Chuou Animal Health and Hygiene Service Center, Niigata Prefecture, Nishikan-ku, Niigata 959-0423, Japan
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Masaharu Tokoro
  • Department of Parasitology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-8640, Japan
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Makoto Haritani
  • National Institute of Animal Health, National Agricultural and Food Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305–0856, Japan
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Tomoyuki Shibahara
  • Corresponding author
  • National Institute of Animal Health, National Agricultural and Food Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305–0856, Japan
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-10-22 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2016-0093


Of the three species of Entamoeba found in swine, namely E. histolytica, E. polecki and E. suis, E. histolytica can also infect humans, producing colitis or abscesses of liver and leading to death. However, the pathogenicity of other species of Entamoeba has not been fully characterized. Here, we conducted histopathology and molecular surveys on a pig farm where piglets had blackish feces or muddy diarrhea. Histopathological examination of two piglets showed necrosis of the mucous surface at the ileum, cecum, or colon, infiltration of neutrophils, and formation of ulcers. Based on morphological characteristics, E. polecki and E. suis trophozoites were mainly detected at lamina propria and surface of the lesion, respectively, and Lawsonia intracellularis, a bacterial pathogen, was also detected. Molecular analysis using the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene on other piglets and a sow revealed infection with both E. polecki and E. suis. These findings corroborate our previous reports that the two Entamoeba spp. are pathogenic in pigs as aggravations of symptoms with L. intracellularis. This is the first report about mixed infection with E. polecki and E. suis.

Keywords: Entamoeba suis; Entamoeba polecki; mixed infection; pigs


  • Bradford C.M., Denver M.C., Cranfield M.R. 2008. Development of a polymerase chain reaction test for Entamoeba invadens. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 39, 201–207Google Scholar

  • Clark C.G., Kaffashian F., Tawari B., Windsor J.J., Twigg-Flesner A., Davies-Morel M.C., Blessmann J., Ebert F., Peschel B., Le Van A., Jackson C.J., Macfarlane L., Tannich E. 2006. New insights into the phylogeny of Entamoeba species provided by analysis of four new small-subunit rRNA genes. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 56, 2235–2239Google Scholar

  • Desowitz R.S., Barnish G. 1986. Entamoeba polecki and other intestinal protozoa in Papua New Guinea Highland children. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 80, 399–402Google Scholar

  • Evangelopoulos A., Spanakos G., Patsoula E., Vakalis N., Legakis N. 2000. A nested, multiplex, PCR assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar in faeces. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 94, 233–240Google Scholar

  • He G.Z., Feng Y., Deng S.X. 2012. Evaluation of the intestinal microbial diversity in miniature pig after orally infected with Entamoeba histolytica. Parasitology Research, 111, 939–941Google Scholar

  • Jones G.F., Ward G.E., Murtaugh M.P., Lin G., Gebhart C.J. 1993. Enhanced detection of intracellular organism of swine proliferative enteritis, ileal symbiont intracellularis, in feces by polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 31, 2611–2615Google Scholar

  • Kawashima K., Tsunemitsu H., Horino R., Katsuda K., Onodera T., Shoji T., Kubo M., Haritani M., Murakami Y. 2003. Effects of dexamethasone on the pathogenesis of porcine circovirus type 2 infection in piglets. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 129, 294–302Google Scholar

  • Kawashima K., Yamada S., Kobayashi H., Narita M. 1996. Detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Mycoplasma hyorhinis antigens in pulmonary lesions of pigs suffering from respiratory distress. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 114, 315–323Google Scholar

  • La T., Phillips N.D., Hampson D.J. 2003. Development of a duplex PCR assay for detection of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli in pig feces. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 41, 3372–3375Google Scholar

  • León-Avila G., Tovar J. 2004. Mitosomes of Entamoeba histolytica are abundant mitochondrion-related remnant organelles that lack a detectable organellar genome. Microbiology, 150, 1245–1250Google Scholar

  • Matsubayashi M., Suzuta F., Terayama Y., Shimojo K., Yui T., Haritani M., Shibahara T. 2014. Ultrastructural characteristics and molecular identification of Entamoeba suis isolated from pigs with hemorrhagic colitis: implications for pathogenicity. Parasitology Research, 113, 3023–3028. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Matsubayashi M., Kanamori K., Sadahiro M., Tokoro M., Abe N., Haritani M., Shibahara T. 2015a. First molecular identification of Entamoeba polecki in a piglet in Japan and implications for aggravation of ileitis by coinfection with Lawsonia intracellularis. Parasitology Research, 114, 3069–3073. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Matsubayashi M., Murakoshi N., Komatsu T., Tokoro M., Haritani M., Shibahara T. 2015b. First molecular identification of Entamoeba polecki subtype 3 (Entamoeba struthionis) from a pig in Japan and characterization of its pathogenic role in ulcerative colitis. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 36, 8–14. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Noble G.A., Noble E.R. 1952. Entamoebae in farm mammals. Journal of Parasitology, 38, 571–595Google Scholar

  • Prophet E.B., Mills B., Arrington J.B., Sobin L.H. (Eds.). 1992. Laboratory Methods in Histotechnology. American Registry of Pathology, Washington DC, pp. 132–214

  • Schuster F.L., Visvesvara G.S. 2004. Amebae and ciliated protozoa as causal agents of waterborne zoonotic disease. Veterinary Parasitology, 126, 91–120Google Scholar

  • Shibahara T., Wada Y., Sueyoshi M., Ohya T., Ishikawa Y., Kadota K. 2000. Bovine intestinal spirochaetosis with dysentery. Veterinary Record, 146, 585–586Google Scholar

  • Shimizu C., Shibahara T., Takai S., Kasuya K., Chikuba T., Murakoshi N., Kobayashi H., Kubo M. 2010. Lawsonia intracellularis and virulent Rhodococcus equi infection in a thoroughbred colt. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 143:303–8. Crossref

  • Skappak C., Akierman S., Belga S., Novak K., Chadee K., Urbanski S.J., Church D., Beck P.L. 2014. Invasive amoebiasis: a review of Entamoeba infections highlighted with case reports. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 28, 355–359Google Scholar

  • Solaymani-Mohammadi S., Rezaian M., Hooshyar H., Mowlavi G.R., Babaei Z., Anwar M.A. 2004. Intestinal protozoa in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in western Iran. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 40, 801–803Google Scholar

  • Stensvold C.R., Lebbad M., Victory E.L., Verweij J.J., Tannich E., Alfellani M., Legarraga P., Clark C.G. 2011. Increased sampling reveals novel lineages of Entamoeba: consequences of genetic diversity and host specificity for taxonomy and molecular detection. Protist, 162, 525–541. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Tachibana H., Kobayashi S., Takekoshi M., Ihara S. 1991. Distinguishing pathogenic isolates of Entamoeba histolytica by polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 164, 825–826Google Scholar

  • Tovar J., Fischer A., Clark C.G. 1999. The mitosome, a novel organelle related to mitochondria in the amitochondrial parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Molecular Microbiology, 32, 1013–1021Google Scholar

  • Verweij J.J., Laeijendecker D., Brienen E.A., van Lieshout L., Polderman A.M. 2003. Detection and identification of Entamoeba species in stool samples by a reverse line hybridization assay. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 41, 5041–5045Google Scholar

  • Verweij J.J., Polderman A.M., Clark C.G. 2001. Genetic variation among human isolates of uninucleated cyst-producing Entamoeba species. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39, 1644–1646Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2015-12-09

Revised: 2016-05-06

Accepted: 2016-05-16

Published Online: 2016-10-22

Published in Print: 2016-12-01

Conflict of interest

The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Citation Information: Acta Parasitologica, Volume 61, Issue 4, Pages 665–670, ISSN (Online) 1896-1851, ISSN (Print) 1230-2821, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2016-0093.

Export Citation

© 2016 W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, PAS.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Wen-Chao Li, Jin-zhu Geng, Cheng Chen, Lei Qian, Tao Zhang, Jun-long Liu, Jian-xun Luo, and You-fang Gu
Acta Tropica, 2018

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in