Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Acta Parasitologica

4 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.160
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.185

CiteScore 2016: 1.24

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.532
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.721

Online
ISSN
1896-1851
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 61, Issue 4 (Dec 2016)

Issues

Genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. in environmental water in Turkey

Zeynep Koloren / Emine Ayaz
Published Online: 2016-10-22 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2016-0094

Abstract

This research was undertaken to study the molecular detection and characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in environmental water sources at Samsun and Giresun Provinces of The Black Sea in Turkey. Two-hundred forty and one-hundred eighty environmental samples were collected from a total of twenty and twenty-five sampling sites of Giresun and Samsun Provinces. One hundred twenty untreated drinking water samples were also detected for Cryptosporidium spp. in both investigated areas. 101 (%42), 92 (%38.3) of 240 and 74 (41.1%), 70 (38.8%) of 180 environmental samples have been found positive for Cryptosporidium spp. by Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting the S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase (SAM) gene and nested PCR targeting small subunit (SSU)rRNA gene in Samsun and Giresun Provinces, respectively. Of the tested untreated drinking water samples collected from the investigated area, one sample was positive for Cryptosporidium spp. Six and twelve samples were clearly sequenced for the Cryptosporidium (SSU)rRNA gene among the highest positive samples selected from each of the twenty and twenty-five sampling sites of Giresun and Samsun Provinces, respectively. Genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates from water samples represented Cryptosporidium bovis for five samples, Cryptosporidium parvum for six samples and one sample for Cryptosporidium felis in Samsun Province, where C. parvum for five samples and C. bovis for one sample were sequenced in Giresun Province. According to accessible information sources, this is the first research about genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. in water samples collected from Samsun and Giresun Provinces of Turkey.

Keywords: Cryptosporidium spp; LAMP; (SSU)rRNA gene; Turkey

References

  • Bakheit M.A., Palomino L., Thekisoe O.M.M., Mate P.A., Ongerth J., Karanis P. 2008: Sensitive and specific detection of Cryptosporidium species in PCR-negative samples by loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification and confirmation of generated LAMP products by sequencing. Veterinary Parasitology, 158, 11–22. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cacciò S.M., Ryan U. 2008. Molecular epidemiology of giardiasis. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 160, 75–80. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Castro-Hermida J.A., Garcı´a-Presedo I., Almeida A., Gonza´lezWarleta V.J., Correia Da Costa M., Mezo V. 2008. Contribution of treated wastewater to the contamination of recreational river areas with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis. Water Research, 42, 3528–3538. DOI:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fall A., Thompson R., Hobbs R., Ryan U. 2003. Morphology is not a reliable tool for delineating species within Cryptosporidium. Journal of Parasitology, 89, 399–402.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Francy D.S., Bushon R.N., Brady A.M.G., Bertke E.E., Kephart C.M., Likiardopulos C.A., Maillot B.E., Schaefer F.W., Lindquist A.H.D. 2009. Performance of traditional and molecular methods for detecting biological agents in drinking water. US Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009–5097

  • Glaberman S., Moore J.E., Lowery C.J., Chalmers R.M., Sulaiman I., Elwin K., Rooney P.J., Millar B.C. Dooley J.S.G., Lal A.A., Xiao L. 2002. Three drinking-water-associated cryptosporidiosis outbreaks, Northern Ireland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8, 631–633. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hall TA. 1999. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series. 41: 95–98Google Scholar

  • Jiang J., Xiao L. 2003. An evaluation of molecular diagnostic tools for thedetection and differentiation of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium spp. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 50, 542–547. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Josephine N.G., Yang R., Whiffin V., Cox P., Ryan U. 2011. Identification of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and Giardia genotypes infecting animals in Sydney’s water catchments. Experimental Parasitology, 128, 138–144Google Scholar

  • Karanis P., Thekisoe O., Kiouptsi K., Ongerth J., Igarashi I., Inoue N. 2007. Development and preliminary evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for sensitive detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in fecal and water samples. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73, 5660–5662. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Koksal F. 2002. Investigation of Source Waters for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Journal of Turkish Society of Microbiology, 32, 275–277Google Scholar

  • Koloren Z., Delioglu B.K. 2011. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in water supplies of Amasya, Middle Black Sea, by Acid-Fast staining methods. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences, 5, 81–84Google Scholar

  • Koloren Z., Karanis P., Sotiriadou I. 2011. Investigations and Comparative Detection of Cryptosporidium Species by Microscopy, Nested PCR and LAMP in Water Supplies of Ordu, Middle Black Sea, Turkey. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 105, 607–615. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Koloren Z., Kaya D., Avşar C. 2013. Detection of Cryptosporidium species in the sea and tap water samples of Black Sea, Turkey. Journal of Parasitology, 99, 554–557. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lobo M.L., Xiao L., Antunes F., Matos O. 2009. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia genotypes and subtypes in raw and treated water in Portugal. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 48, 732–737. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • McLauchlin J., Amar C., Pedraza-Diaz S., Nichols G.L. 2000. Molecular epidemiological analysis of Cryptosporidium spp. in the United Kingdom: results of genotyping Cryptosporidium spp. in fecal samples from humans and fecal samples from livestock animals. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38, 3984–3990Google Scholar

  • Minarovičová J., Kaclıkova E., Krascsenicsova K., Siekel P., Kuchta T. 2009. A single-tube nested real-time polymerase chain reaction for sensitive contained detection of Cryptosporidium parvum. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 49, 568–572. DOI:CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Monis P.T., Saint C.P. 2001. Development of a nested-PCR assay for the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in finished water. Water Research, 35, 1641–1648. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Nichols R.A.B., Campbell B.M., Smith H.V. 2003. Identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts in United Kingdom noncarbonated natural mineral waters and drinking waters by using a modified nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69, 4183–4189. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Plutzer J., Karanis P., Domokos K., Torokne A., Marialigeti K. 2008. Detection and characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Hungarian raw, surface and sewage water samples by IFT, PCR and sequence analysis of the SSUrRNA and GDH genes. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 211, 524–533. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ryan U., Read C., Hawkins P., Warnecke M., Swanson P., Griffith M., Deere D., Cunningham M., Cox P. 2005. Genotypes of Cryptosporidium from Sydney water catchment areas. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 98, 1221–1229. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Smith H.V., Cacciò S.M., Tait A., Mc Lauchlin J., Thompson R.C.A. 2006. Tools for investigating the environmental transmission of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in humans. Trends in Parasitology, 22, 160–167. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Spano F., Crisanti A. 2000. Cryptosporidium parvum: The many secrets of a small genome. International Journal for Parasitology, 30, 553–565. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Terzi G. 2005. Importance of Food-Borne Protozoal Infections for Public Health. Yuzuncu Yil University. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Faculty, 16, 47–55Google Scholar

  • Xiao L. 2010. Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis: an update. Experimental Parasitology, 124, 80–89. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Xiao L., Alderisio K., Limor J., Royer M., Lal A.A. 2000. Identification of species and sources of Cryptosporidium oocysts in storm waters with a small-subunit rRNA-based diagnostic and genotyping tool. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66, 5492–5498. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Xiao L., Fayer R. 2008. Molecular characterization of species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and assessment of zoonotic transmission. International Journal for Parasitology, 38, 1239–1255. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Xiao L., Fayer R., Ryan U., Upton S.J. 2004. Cryptosporidium taxonomy: recent advances and implications for public health. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 17, 72–97. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Xiao L., Ryan U.M. 2006. Molecular epidemiology. In: (Eds. Fayer, R. and Xiao, L.) Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis. CRS Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, 119–171Google Scholar

  • Xiao L., Singh A., Limor J., Graczyk T.K., Gradus S., Lal A.A. 2001. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium oocysts in samples of raw surface water and wastewater. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67, 1097–1101. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2016-01-08

Revised: 2016-04-18

Accepted: 2016-05-23

Published Online: 2016-10-22

Published in Print: 2016-12-01


Citation Information: Acta Parasitologica, ISSN (Online) 1896-1851, ISSN (Print) 1230-2821, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2016-0094.

Export Citation

© 2016 W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, PAS. Copyright Clearance Center

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in