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Acta Parasitologica

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Volume 61, Issue 4


Critical analysis of vector-borne infections in dogs: Babesia vogeli, Babesia gibsoni, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis in Punjab, India

Lachhman Das Singla
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Sciences, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004, India
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Deepak Sumbria
  • Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Sciences, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ajay Mandhotra
  • Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Sciences, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ M.S. Bal
  • Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Sciences, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Paramjit Kaur
  • Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Sciences, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-10-22 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2016-0098


There are few published studies on various vector borne diseases of dogs in India and most depict clinical infection in dogs, diagnosed by observation of the haemopathogens in stained blood smears. This study provides the first report regarding molecular confirmation and ancestral relationship analysis of blood smears positive cases of assorted haemopathogens in Punjab province of India. On blood smear examination, haemopathogens were observed in 124 out of 778 (15.95%, 95% CI: 13.53– 18.68) blood smears. Further polymerase chain reactions (PCR) was used on bloods smear positive cases to validate the results. Out of 778 blood samples, Babesia gibsoni was most common parasite infecting dogs (15.04%, 95% CI: 12.7–17.72), followed by Ehrlichia canis (0.39%, 95% CI: 0.0–1.13), infection of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis was same (0.26%, 95% CI: 0.0–0.9). Among various risk factors studied (age, sex, season), prevalence of infection was non-significantly higher in 1–2 year of age group (19.88%, 95% CI: 14.45–26.71), regarding sex same prevalence was recorded (15.94%), and chances of infection was highest in pre-monsoon i.e. summer (18.26%, 95% CI: 14.49–22.76). Phylogenetic analysis revealed ancestral background of Ludhiana isolates of B. vogeli, B. gibsoni, H. canis, and E. canis with the isolates of Philippines, Mongolia and Tunisia.

Keywords: Babesia gibsoni; Babesia vogeli; Hepatozoon canis; Ehrlichia canis; Polymerase chain reaction; Phylogenetic analysis


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About the article

Received: 2015-07-28

Revised: 2016-04-11

Accepted: 2016-05-13

Published Online: 2016-10-22

Published in Print: 2016-12-01

Conflict of interests

All authors are having no conflict of interest.

Citation Information: Acta Parasitologica, Volume 61, Issue 4, Pages 697–706, ISSN (Online) 1896-1851, ISSN (Print) 1230-2821, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2016-0098.

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