Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Acta Parasitologica

4 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.160
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.185

CiteScore 2016: 1.24

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.532
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.721

Online
ISSN
1896-1851
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 61, Issue 4 (Dec 2016)

Issues

Critical analysis of vector-borne infections in dogs: Babesia vogeli, Babesia gibsoni, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis in Punjab, India

Lachhman Das Singla
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Sciences, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004, India
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Deepak Sumbria
  • Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Sciences, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ajay Mandhotra
  • Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Sciences, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ M.S. Bal
  • Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Sciences, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Paramjit Kaur
  • Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Sciences, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-10-22 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2016-0098

Abstract

There are few published studies on various vector borne diseases of dogs in India and most depict clinical infection in dogs, diagnosed by observation of the haemopathogens in stained blood smears. This study provides the first report regarding molecular confirmation and ancestral relationship analysis of blood smears positive cases of assorted haemopathogens in Punjab province of India. On blood smear examination, haemopathogens were observed in 124 out of 778 (15.95%, 95% CI: 13.53– 18.68) blood smears. Further polymerase chain reactions (PCR) was used on bloods smear positive cases to validate the results. Out of 778 blood samples, Babesia gibsoni was most common parasite infecting dogs (15.04%, 95% CI: 12.7–17.72), followed by Ehrlichia canis (0.39%, 95% CI: 0.0–1.13), infection of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis was same (0.26%, 95% CI: 0.0–0.9). Among various risk factors studied (age, sex, season), prevalence of infection was non-significantly higher in 1–2 year of age group (19.88%, 95% CI: 14.45–26.71), regarding sex same prevalence was recorded (15.94%), and chances of infection was highest in pre-monsoon i.e. summer (18.26%, 95% CI: 14.49–22.76). Phylogenetic analysis revealed ancestral background of Ludhiana isolates of B. vogeli, B. gibsoni, H. canis, and E. canis with the isolates of Philippines, Mongolia and Tunisia.

Keywords: Babesia gibsoni; Babesia vogeli; Hepatozoon canis; Ehrlichia canis; Polymerase chain reaction; Phylogenetic analysis

References

  • Altschul S.F., Gish W., Miller W., Myers E.W., Lipman D.J. 1990. Basic local alignment search tool. Journal of Molecular Biol-ogy, 215, 403–410. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Armstrong P.M., Katavolos P., Caporale D.A., Smith R.P., Spielman A., Telford S.R. 3rd. 1998. Diversity of Babesia infecting deer ticks (Ixodes dammini). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 58, 739–742Google Scholar

  • Avizeh R., Mosallanejad B., Jalali R.M.H., Alborzi A.R. 2010. Sero-prevalence of Ehrlichia canis in dogs referred to Veterinary Hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran. Archives of Razi Institute, 65, 21–26Google Scholar

  • Azevedo S.S., Aguiar D.M., Aquino S.F., Orlandelli R.C., Fernan-des A.R.F., Uchoa I.C.P. 2011. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated to Ehrlichia canis in dogs from the semiarid of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, 48, 14–18Google Scholar

  • Baneth G., Barta J.R., Shkap V., Martin D.S., Macintire D.K., Vin-cent-Johnson N. 2000. Genetic and antigenic evidence supports the separation of Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum at the species level. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38, 1298–1301Google Scholar

  • Baneth G., Bourdeau P., Bourdoiseau G., Bowman D., Breitschwerdt E., Capelli G., Cardoso L., Dantas-Torres F., Day M., Dedet J.P., Dobler G., Ferrer L., Irwin P., Kempf V., Kohn B., Lappin M., Little S., Maggi R., Miró G., Naucke T., Oliva G., Otranto D., Penzhorn B., Pfeffer M., Roura X., Sainz A., Shaw S., Shin S., Solano-Gallego L., Straubinger R., Traub R., Trees A., Truyen U., Demonceau T., Fitzgerald R., Gatti D., Hostetler J., Kilmer B., Krieger K., Mencke N., Mendão C., Mottier L., Pachnicke S., Rees B., Siebert S., Stanneck D., Mingote M.T., von Simson C., Weston S., CVBD World Forum. 2012. Vector-borne diseases-constant challenge for practicing veterinarians: recommendations from the CVBD World Forum. Parasite and Vectors, 5, 55. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Baneth G., Samish M., Shkap V. 2007. Life cycle of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae) in the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and domestic dog (Canis familiaris). Journal of Parasitology, 93, 283–299. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Baneth G., Shkap V. 2003. Monozoic cysts of Hepatozoon canis. Journal of Parasitology, 89, 379–381. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Baneth G., Shkap V., Presentey B.Z., Pipano E. 1996. Hepatozoon canis: the prevalence of antibodies and gametocytes in dogs in Israel. Veterinary Research Communications, 20, 41–46. DOI: 10.1007/BF00346576CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Baneth G., Weigler B. 1997. Retrospective case-control study of hepatozoonosis in dogs in Israel. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 11, 365–370. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cardoso L., Costa A., Tuna J., Vieira L., Eyal O., Yisaschar-Mekuzas Y., Baneth G. 2008. Babesia canis canis and Babesia canis vogeli infections in dogs from northern Portugal. Veterinary Parasitology, 156, 199–204. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Chaudhuri S., Varshney J.P. 2007. Clinical management of babesio-sis in dogs with homeopathic Crotalus horridus 200C. Homeopathy, 96, 90–94. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Chhabra S., Uppal S.K., Singla L.D. 2013. Retrospective study of clinical and hematological aspects associated with dogs naturally infected by Hepatozoon canis in Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 3, 483–486. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Coles E.H. 1986. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 4th edition. W.B. Saunders Co. PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar

  • Dantas-Torres F., Latrofa M.S., Weigl S., Tarallo V.D., Lia R.P., Otranto D. 2011. Hepatozoon canis infection in ticks during spring and summer in Italy. Parasitology Research, Crossref

  • Eljadar M.S.M., Singla L.D., Mustafa R.A.A., Uppal S.K. 2012. Morphometric variations in gametocytes of Hepatozoon canis from naturally infected dogs. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, Crossref

  • Ezeokoli C.D., Ogunkoya A.B., Abdullahi R., Tekdek L.B., Sannusi A., Ilemobade A.A. 1983. Clinical and epidemiological studies on canine hepatozoonosis in Zaria, Nigeria. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 24, 445–460. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Foldvari G., Hell E., Farkas R. 2005. Babesia canis canis in dogs from Hungary: detection by PCR and sequencing. Veterinary Parasitology, 127, 221–226. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gill H.S., Gill B.S. 1977. Qualitative district-wise distribution of adult ixodid ticks in the Punjab state. Ixodid ticks of Domestic Animals in the Punjab State. PAU, Ludhiana, pp. 2–14Google Scholar

  • Gupta M.P., Nauriyal D.C., Juyal .P.D., Kalra I.S., Khahra S.S., Mohan R. 1994. Therapeutic trials of Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs. Indian Veterinary Journal, 71, 1221–1221Google Scholar

  • Imre M., Farkas R., Ilie M.S., Imre K., Darabus G. 2013. Survey of babesiosis in symptomatic dogs from Romania: Occurrence of Babesia gibsoni associated with breed. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, 4, 500–502. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Inokuma H., Yoshizaki Y., Matsumoto K., Okuda M., Onishi T., Nakagome K., Kosugi R., Hirakawa M. 2004. Molecular survey of Babesia infection in dogs in Okinawa, Japan. Veterinary Parasitology, 121, 341–346. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Inokuma H., Okuda M., Ohno K., Shimoda K., Onishi T. 2002. Analysis of the 18S rRNA gene sequence of a Hepatozoon detected in two Japanese dogs. Veterinary Parasitology, 106, 265–271. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Juyal P.D., Kalra I.S., Singla L.D. 1994. Prevalence of haemoproto-zoans in domestic animals in Punjab. 6th National congress of Veterinary Parasitology

  • Karagenc T.I., Pasa S., Kirli G., Hosgor M., Bilgic H.B., Ozon Y.H., Atasoy A., Eren H. 2006. A parasitological, molecular and serological survey of Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs around the Aegean coast of Turkey. Veterinary Parasitology, 135, 113–119. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kawamoto F., Miyake H., Kaneko O., Kimura M., Dung N.T., Liu Q., Zhou M., Dao L.D., Kawai S., Isomura S., Wataya Y. 1996. Sequence Variation in the 18S rRNA Gene, a Target for PCR Based Malaria Diagnosis, in Plasmodium ovale from Southern Vietnam. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 34, 2287Google Scholar

  • Kim C., Blanco L.B.C., Alhassan A., Iseki H., Yokoyama N., Xuan X., Igarashi I. 2008. Diagnostic real-time PCR assay for the quantitative detection of Theileria equi from equine blood samples. Veterinary Parasitology, 151, 158–163Google Scholar

  • Kumar P., Kumar V., Gopal H., Sharma H., Wadhawan V.M. 2015. Prevalence of Canine Babesiosis in and around Jalandhar (Punjab), India. Veterinary Clinical Science, 3, 1–3Google Scholar

  • Kundu K., Kumar S., Maurya P.S., Mandal M., Ram H., Garg R., Pawde A.M., Raina O.K., Banerjee P.S. 2012. PCR based identification of Babesia canis vogeli in clinically affected dogs. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology, 26, 167–169Google Scholar

  • Lorusso V., Dantas-Torres F., Lia R.P., Tarallo V.D., Mencke N., Capelli G., Otranto D. 2010. Seasonal dynamics of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, on a confined dog population in Italy. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 24, 309–315. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Milanjeet, Singh H., Singh N.K., Singh N.D., Singh C., Rath S.S. 2014. Molecular prevalence and risk factors for the occurrence of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis Veterinarni Medicina, 59, 129–136Google Scholar

  • Murphy G.L., Ewing S.A., Whitworth L.C., Fox J.C., Kocan A.A. 1998. A molecular and serologic survey of Ehrlichia canis, E. chaifeensis and E. ewingii in dogs and ticks from Oklahoma. Veterinary Parasitology, 79, 325–339. DOI:10.5433/16790359.2012v33n3p1123CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • O’Dwyer L.H., Massard C.L., de Souza J.C.P. 2001. Hepatozoon canis infection associated with dog ticks of rural areas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology, 94, 143– 150. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4017(00)00378-2CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Otranto D., Dantas-Torres F. 2010. Canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy: current situation and perspectives. Parasite and Vectors, 3, 2. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Otranto D., Dantas-Torres F., Breitschwerdt E.B. 2009. Managing canine vector-borne diseases of zoonotic concern: part one. Trends in Parasitology, 25, 157–163. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Singh A., Singh H., Singh N.K., Singh N.D., Rath S.S. 2014. Canine Babesiosis in Northwestern India: Molecular Detection and Assessment of Risk Factors. BioMed Research International, 5. Crossref

  • Singla L.D., Singh H., Kaur P., Singh N.D., Singh N.K., Juyal P.D. 2011. Serodetection of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs from Ludhiana district of Punjab, India. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 35, 195–198. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Soulsby E.J.L. (Ed.) 1982. Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. 7th edn. Bailliere-Tindall, London, UKGoogle Scholar

  • Tamura K., Stecher G., Peterson D., Filipski A., Kumar S. 2013. MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30, 2725–2729Google Scholar

  • Tanikawa A., Labruna M.B., Costa A., Aguiar D.M., Justiniano S.V., Mendes R.S., Melo A.L.T., Alves C.J., Azevedo S.S. 2013. Ehrlichia canis in dogs in a semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil: Serology, molecular detection and associated factors. Research in Veterinary Science, 94, 474–477. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Thrusfield M. (Ed.) 2007. Veterinary Epidemiology, 3rd Edn, Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 243Google Scholar

  • Vipan K., Parvinder K., Charanjeet S., Heigo P., Gagandeep B., Han-ish S., Wadhawan V.M. 2015. Prevalence of Canine Babesiosis in Jalandhar District, Punjab, India. Research Journal of Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sciences, 3, 6–8Google Scholar

  • Yabsley M.J., McKibben J., Macpherson C.N., Cattan P.F., Cherry N.A., Hegarty B.C., Breitschwerdt E.B., O’Connor T., Chandrashekar R., Paterson T., Perea M.L., Ball C., Friesen S., Goedde J., Henderson B., Sylvester W. 2008. Prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii and Rickettsia spp. in dogs from Grenada. Veterinary Parasitology, 151, 279–85. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2015-07-28

Revised: 2016-04-11

Accepted: 2016-05-13

Published Online: 2016-10-22

Published in Print: 2016-12-01


Conflict of interests

All authors are having no conflict of interest.


Citation Information: Acta Parasitologica, ISSN (Online) 1896-1851, ISSN (Print) 1230-2821, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2016-0098.

Export Citation

© 2016 W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, PAS. Copyright Clearance Center

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in