Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Acta Parasitologica

4 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.160
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.185

CiteScore 2016: 1.24

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.532
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.721

Online
ISSN
1896-1851
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 61, Issue 4 (Dec 2016)

Issues

Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in red foxes in Slovakia

Katarína Reiterová / Silvia Špilovská / Andrea Čobádiová / Zuzana Hurníková
Published Online: 2016-10-24 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2016-0105

Abstract

Sera or meat juices of 177 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) originated from the localities of a human-influenced landscape (Group 1) and 126 foxes from the protected mountain region (Group 2) of Slovakia, collected during 2010–2014 were tested for the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii using indirect ELISA and Neospora caninum by competitive ELISA. The tissue and uncoagulated blood samples were examined for the presence of the parasite’s DNA. The total seropositivity to T. gondii was 62.7% (190/303) and to N. caninum 26.4% (80/303). In the Group 1 antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 74.0% (131/177) and to N. caninum in 38.9% (69/177). In the Group 2 significantly lower seropositivity of 46.8% (59/126) to T. gondii antigens (P = 0.0218) and 8.7% (11/126) to N. caninum (P = 0.0001) was detected, respectively. However, by using molecular method, the presence of both parasites, was recorded less frequently. While in Group 1 T. gondii DNA was detected in 10.0% and N. caninum DNA in 18.3% of examined samples, in Group 2 T. gondii DNA was not detected at all and N. caninum was detected in 9.1% samples only. Results indicate that examined infections are highly common in the red foxes in Slovakia and are widespread in the locations of Eastern Slovakia bordering Poland, Ukraine and Hungary. The high infection rate in foxes representing reservoir hosts, presumably originates from their infected prey, ungulate carcasses, or from residual infected tissues in the hunting grounds after evisceration of shot animals during a hunting season.

Keywords: Toxoplasmosis; neosporosis; Vulpes vulpes; antibodies; ELISA; DNA; PCR; Slovakia

References

  • Afonso C., Paixão V.B., Costa R.M. 2012. Chronic Toxoplasma infection modifies the structure and the risk of host behaviour. PLoS One 7: e32489. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Almería S., Ferrer D., Pabo M., Castella J., Manas S. 2002. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are a natural intermediate hosts of Neospora caninum. Veterinary Parasitology, 107, 287–294Google Scholar

  • Buxton D., Maley S.W., Pastoret P.P., Brochier B., Innes E.A. 1997. Examination of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Belgium for antibody to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Veterinary Record, 141, 308–309Google Scholar

  • Cicchetti D.V., Feinstein A.R. 1990. High agreement but low kappa: II. Resolving the paradoxes. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 43, 551–558Google Scholar

  • Cook A.J., Gilbert R.E., Buffolano W., Zufferey J., Petersen E., Jenum P.A., Foulon W., Semprini A.E., Dunn D.T. 2000. Sources of Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: European multicentre case–control study. European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis. BMJ, 321, 142–147Google Scholar

  • De Craeye S., Speybroeck N., Ajzenberg D., Dardé M.L., Collinet F., Tavernier P., Van Gucht S., Dorny P., Dierick K. 2011. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wildlife: Common parasites in Belgian foxes and Cervidae? Veterinary Parasitology, 178, 64–69. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Dubey J.P., Beattie C.P. 1988. (Eds) Toxoplasmosis of animals and man. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 220Google Scholar

  • Dubey J.P., Storandt S.T., Kwok O.C., Thulliez P., Kazacos K.R. 1999. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in naturally exposed wild coyotes, red foxes, and gray foxes and serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in red foxes fed T. gondii oocysts and tissue cysts. Journal for Parasitology, 85, 240–243Google Scholar

  • Dubey J.P. 2003. Review of Neospora caninum and neosporosis in animals. Korean Journal for Parasitology, 41, 1–16Google Scholar

  • Ferroglio E., Pasino M., Romano A., Grande D., Pregel P., Trisciuoglio A. 2007. Evidence of Neospora caninum DNA in wild rodents. Veterinary Parasitology, 148, 346–349Google Scholar

  • Frenkel J.K., Ruiz A., Chinchilla M. 1975. Soil survival of Toxoplasma oocysts in Kansas and Costa Rica. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 24, 439–443Google Scholar

  • Gloor S., Bontadina F., Hegglin D., Deplazes P., Breitenmoser U. 2001. The rise of urban fox populations in Switzerland. Mammalian Biology, 66, 155–164Google Scholar

  • Graham P., Bull B. 1998. Approximate standard errors and confidence intervals for indices of positive and negative agreement. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 51, 763–771. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hamilton C.M., Gray R., Wright S.E., Gangadharan B., Laurenson K., Innes E.A. 2005. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from around the UK. Veterinary Parasitology, 130, 169–173Google Scholar

  • Herrmann D.C., Maksimov P., Maksimov A., Sutor A., Schwarz S., Jaschke W., Schliephake A., Denzin N., Conraths F.J., Schares G. 2012. Toxoplasma gondii in foxes and rodents from the German Federal States of Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt: Seroprevalence and genotypes. Veterinary Parasitology, 185, 78–85Google Scholar

  • Hoehler F.K. 2000. Bias and prevalence effects on kappa viewed in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 53, 499–503. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hollings T., Jones M., Mooney N., McCallum H. 2013. Wildlife disease ecology in changing landscapes: Mesopredator release and toxoplasmosis. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 2, 110–118Google Scholar

  • Hůrková L., Modrý D. 2006. PCR detection of Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Encephalitozoon cuniculi in brains of wild carnivores. Veterinary Parasitology, 137, 150–154Google Scholar

  • Jakubek E.B., Brojer C., Regnersen C., Uggla A., Schares G., Bjorkman C. 2001. Seroprevalences of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in Swedish red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Veterinary Parasitology, 102, 167–172Google Scholar

  • Jakubek E.B., Farkas R., Palfi V., Mattsson J.G. 2007. Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in Hungarian red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Veterinary Parasitology, 144, 39–44Google Scholar

  • Lamoril J., Molina M.J., Gouvello A., Garin J.Y., Deybach C.J. 1996. Detection by PCR of Toxoplasma gondii in blood in the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 49, 89–92. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • McAllister M.M., Dubey J.P., Lindsay D.S., Jolley W.R., Wills R.A., McGuire A.M. 1998. Dogs are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum. International Journal for Parasitology, 28, 473–1478Google Scholar

  • Murphy T.M., Walochnik J., Hassl A., Moriarty J., Mooney J., Toolan D., Sanchez-Miguel C., O’Loughlin A., McAuliffe A. 2007. Study on the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum and molecular evidence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Encephalitozoon (Septata) intestinalis infections in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in rural Ireland. Veterinary Parasitology, 146, 227–234Google Scholar

  • Reiterová K., Špilovská S., Čobádiová A., Mucha R. 2011. First in vitro isolation of Neospora caninum from a naturally infected adult dairy cow in Slovakia. Acta Parasitologica, 56, 111–115. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Suteu O., Mihalca A.D., Pastiu A.I., Györke A., Matei I.A., Ionica A., Balea A., Oltean M., D’Amico G., Barabási Sikó S., Ionesku D., Gherman C.M., Cozma V. 2014. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Romania are Carriers of Toxoplasma gondii but not Neospora caninum. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 50, 713–716. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/2013-07-167Crossref

  • Tenter A.M., Heckeroth A.R., Weiss L.M. 2000. Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans. International Journal for Parasitology, 30, 1217–1258. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Verin R., Mugnaini L., Nardoni S., Papini R.A., Ariti G., Poli A., Mancianti F. 2013. Serologic, molecular, and pathologic survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-ranging red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in central Italy. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 49, 545–551Google Scholar

  • Wanha K., Edelhofer R., Gabler-Eduardo C., Prosl H. 2005. Prevalence-of antibodies against Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in dogs and foxes in Austria. Veterinary Parasitology, 128, 189–193Google Scholar

  • Wolfe A., Hogan S., Maguire D., Fitzpatrick C., Vaughan L., Wall D., Hayden T.J., Mulcahy G. 2001. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Ireland as hosts for parasites of potential zoonotic and veterinary significance. Veterinary Record, 149, 759–763Google Scholar

  • Yamage M., Flechtner O., Gottstein B. 1996. Neospora caninum: Specific oligonucleotide primers for the detection of brain ‘‘cyst’’ DNA of experimentally infected nude mice by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). International Journal for Parasitology, 82, 272–279. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Yilmaz S.M., Hopkins S.H. 1997. Effects of different conditions on duration of infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Journal for Parasitology, 58, 938–939Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2016-05-12

Revised: 2016-06-21

Accepted: 2016-06-23

Published Online: 2016-10-24

Published in Print: 2016-12-01


Citation Information: Acta Parasitologica, ISSN (Online) 1896-1851, ISSN (Print) 1230-2821, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2016-0105.

Export Citation

© 2016 W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, PAS. Copyright Clearance Center

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in