Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Acta Parasitologica

4 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.039
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.121

CiteScore 2017: 1.17

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.641
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.738

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 61, Issue 4


Ocular symptoms reported by patients infested with Demodex mites

Aleksandra Sędzikowska
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of General Biology and Parasitology, Medical University of Warsaw, 5 Chalubinskiego street, 02-004 Warsaw, Poland
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Maciej Osęka / Barbara Grytner-Zięcina
  • Department of General Biology and Parasitology, Medical University of Warsaw, 5 Chalubinskiego street, 02-004 Warsaw, Poland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-10-24 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2016-0112


The purpose of this study was to determine subjective ocular symptoms occurring in patients infested with Demodex. The number of Demodex mites in the obtained material that correlated with the appearance of ocular symptoms was estimated. The study material were eyelashes collected from 1499 patients. The material were observed under a light microscope. T-test, the logistic regression method, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for the analysis. Demodex mites were detected in 47% patients. The mean ages of infected women and men were 64 and 59 years, respectively. 64% infected patients complained of one or more ophthalmological symptoms. The most commonly reported symptoms included itching (28%), redness of eyelids (21%), and watery eyes (15%). Positive correlation was found between itching, redness, pain, purulence or eyelash loss and the presence of Demodex. The mentioned symptoms increase the probability of Demodex infestation in a statistically significant manner (p<0.005). A correlation between the age and gender and the number of Demodex was revealed by the study. The threshold average number of seven Demodex mites per eight collected eyelashes with which the risk of the occurrence of an ocular symptom increases significantly was defined. In patients with a low number of Demodex mites, symptoms may be absent. The risk of the occurrence of ocular symptom in patients with demodicosis increases with the increase in the average number of Demodex mites.

Keywords: Demodex; demodicosis; ocular symptomsIntroduction


  • Bonnar E., Eustace P., Powell F.C. 1993. The Demodex mite population in rosacea. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 28, 443–448Google Scholar

  • Chen W., Plewig G. 2014. Human demodicosis: revisit and a proposed classification. The British Journal of Dermatology, 170, 1219–25. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Coston T. O. 1967. Demodex folliculorum blepharitis. Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society, 65, 361–392Google Scholar

  • Czepita D., Kuzna-Grygiel W., Czepita M., Grobelny A. 2007. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis as a cause of chronic marginal blepharitis. Annales Academiae Medicae Stetinensis, 53, 63–67Google Scholar

  • English F.P. 1971. Variant of Demodex folliculorum infesting the eyelids. The British Journal of Ophthalmology, 55, 747–749Google Scholar

  • Erbagci Z., Erbagci I., Erkiliç S. 2003. High incidence of demodicidosis in eyelid basal cell carcinomas. International Journal of Dermatology, 42, 567–571. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Forton F., Seys B. 1993. Density of Demodex folliculorum in rosacea: a case-control study using standardized skin-surface biopsy. The British Journal of Dermatology, 128, 650–659. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gao Y.Y., Di Pascuale M.A., Elizondo A. Tseng S.C. 2007. Clinical treatment of ocular demodecosis by lid scrub with tea tree oil. Cornea, 26, 136–143. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Humiczewska M., Kuzna W., Hermach U. 1994. Frequency of occurrence of symptomatic and asymptomatic eyelids demodecosis among the inhabitants of Szczecin. Wiadomosci Parazytologiczne, 40, 69–71Google Scholar

  • Inceboz T., Yaman A., Over L., Ozturk A.T., Akisu C. 2009. Diagnosis and treatment of demodectic blepharitis. Acta Parasitologica Turcica, 33, 32–36Google Scholar

  • Jansen T., Bechara F.G., Stücker M., Altmeyer P. 2005. Demodicidosis of the nipple. Acta Dermato-venereologica, 85, 186–187. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kim J.H., Chun J.S., Kim J.C. 2011. Clinical and immunological responses in ocular demodecosis. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 26, 1231–1237. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kheirkhah A., Casas V., Li W., Raju V.K., Tseng S.C. 2007. Corneal manifestations of ocular Demodex infestation. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 143, 743–749. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Koo H., Kim T.H., Kim K.W., Wee S.W., Chun Y.S., Kim J.C. 2012. Ocular Surface Discomfort and Demodex: Effect of Tea Tree Oil Eyelid Scrub in Demodex Blepharitis. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 27, 1574–1579. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lacey N., Delaney S., Kavanagh K. Powell F.C. 2007. Mite-related bacterial antigens stimulate inflammatory cells in rosacea. The British Journal of Dermatology, 157, 474–481. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lee S.H., Chun Y.S., Kim J.H. Kim E.S., Kim J.C. 2010. The relationship between Demodex and ocular discomfort. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 51, 2906–2911. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Li J., O’Reilly N., Sheha H., Katz R., Raju V.K., Kavanagh K., Tseng S.C. 2010. Correlation between Ocular Demodex Infestation and Serum Immunoreactivity to Bacillus Proteins in patients with Facial rosacea. Ophthalmology, 117, 870–877. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Liu J., Sheha H., Tseng S.C. 2010. Pathogenic role of Demodex mites in blepharitis. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 10, 505–510. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rusiecka-Ziólkowska J., Nokiel M., Fleischer M. 2014. Demodex – an old pathogen or a new one? Advances in Clinical and Ex-perimental Medicine, 23, 295–298Google Scholar

  • Sönmez Ö.U., Yalçin Z.G., Karakeçe E., Çiftci I.H., Erdem T. 2013. Associations between Demodex species infestation and various types of cancer. Acta Parasitologica, 58, 551–555. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Tarkowski W., Owczyńska M., Blaszczyk-Tyszka A., Mlocicki D. 2015a. Demodex mites as potential etiological factor in chalazion – a study in Poland. Acta Parasitologica, 60, 777–783. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Tarkowski W., Moneta-Wielgos J., Mlocicki D. 2015b. Demodex sp. as a Potential Cause of the Abandonment of Soft Contact Lenses by Their Existing Users. BioMed Research International, 2015, 1–7. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Tsai Y.J., Chung W.C., Wang L.C., Ju Y.T., Hong C.L., Tsai Y.Y., Li Y.H., Wu Y.L. 2011. The dog mite, Demodex canis: Prevalence, fungal co-infection, reactions to light, and hair follicle apoptosis. Journal of Insect Science, 11, 1–13. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Vargas-Arzola J., Reyes-Velasco L., Segura-Salvador A. Márquez- Navarro A., Díaz-Chiguer D.L., Nogueda-Torres B. 2012. Prevalence of Demodex mites in eyelashes among people of Oaxaca, Mexico. Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica, 59, 257–262. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wesołowska M., Baran W., Szepietowski J., Hirschberg L., Jankowski S. 2005. Demodicidosis in humans as a current problem in dermatology. Wiadomosci Parazytologiczne, 51, 253–256Google Scholar

  • Wesolowska M., Knysz B., Reich A., Blazejewska D., Czarnecki M., Gladysz A., Pozowski A., Misiuk-Hojlo M. 2014. Prevalence of Demodex spp. in eyelash follicles in different populations. Archives of Medical Science, 10, 319–324. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2016-07-15

Revised: 2016-07-25

Accepted: 2016-07-27

Published Online: 2016-10-24

Published in Print: 2016-12-01

Citation Information: Acta Parasitologica, Volume 61, Issue 4, Pages 808–814, ISSN (Online) 1896-1851, ISSN (Print) 1230-2821, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2016-0112.

Export Citation

© 2016 W. Stefañski Institute of Parasitology, PAS.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

William Ngo, Lyndon Jones, and Etty Bitton
Eye & Contact Lens: Science & Clinical Practice, 2018, Volume 44, Page S87
Monika Maria Biernat, Jolanta Rusiecka-Ziółkowska, Elżbieta Piątkowska, Iwona Helemejko, Paweł Biernat, and Grażyna Gościniak
Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology, 2018
Florencia Mongi, Laura Laconte, and Rodolfo D. Casero
Revista Argentina de Microbiología, 2018
Orla Murphy, Veronica O’Dwyer, and Aoife Lloyd-McKernan
International Ophthalmology, 2018

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in