Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Acta Parasitologica

4 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.039
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.121

CiteScore 2017: 1.17

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.641
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.738

Online
ISSN
1896-1851
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 62, Issue 4

Issues

Animal level risk factors associated with Babesia and Theileria infections in cattle in Egypt

Mohamed Abdo Rizk
  • Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Akram Salama
  • Department of Animal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sadat City, Menoufia, 32897, Egypt
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Shimaa Abd-El-Salam El-Sayed
  • Department of Biochemistry and Chemistry of Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ahmed Elsify
  • Department of Animal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sadat City, Menoufia, 32897, Egypt
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Maged El-ashkar
  • Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Hussam Ibrahim
  • Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Mohamed Youssef
  • Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Sabry El-Khodery
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-10-15 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2017-0096

Abstract

In present study, blood samples were collected randomly from 439 cows at three main regions of Egypt (northern, central and southern). Molecular diagnosis of Babesia and Theileria infections by PCR amplification of DNA (gene) fragments, then cloning and sequencing of the positive samples were conducted. A questionnaire was created to imply the assumed risk factors and logistic regression statistical analysis was carried out to appraise the potential factors on the animal level. The results revealed that 49 (11.16%) and 45 (10.25%) cattle were infected with Babesia and Theileria parasites, respectively. B. bigemina (7.97%) and T. annulata (9.56%) were the most prevalent parasites. For Babesia sp., final multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between the infection and irregular use of antiprotozoal drugs (P = 0.003; OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12–0.65), management practice (P = 0.029; OR: 6.66; 95% CI: 1.21–36.59) and ecology area (P = 0.006; OR: 5.62; 95% CI: 1.63–19.31). However, for Theileria sp. infection, animal breed (P = 0.003; OR: 0.44; 95% CI: .45–1.00) and irregular use of antiprotozoal drugs (P<0.001; OR: 4.22; 95% CI: 2.62–5.60) were the potential risk factors. The results of the present study declare the prevalent bovine Babesia and Theileria sp. in Egypt based on molecular description. An impression on the potential risk factors associated with infections was obtained. Recognition of the potential risk factors associated with tick borne disease may be helpful to construct the best preventive measures.

Keywords: Babesia; Theileria; Egypt; PCR; risk factors; epidemiology

References

  • Acici M. 1995. Prevalence of blood parasites in cattle in the Samsun region Turkey. Etlik Veteriner Mikrobiyoloji Dergisi, 8, 271–277Google Scholar

  • Adam K., Blewett D., Collins T., Edgar J. 1978. Outbreaks of babesiasis on two farms in Scotland [beef and dairy cattle]. British Veterinary Journal, 134, 428–433CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Adham F.K., Abd-El-Samie E.M., Gabre R.M., El-Hussein H. 2009. Detection of tick blood parasites in Egypt using PCR assay I—Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. Parasitology Research, 105, 721–30. CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Altay K., Aydin M.F., Dumanli N., Aktas M. 2008. Molecular detection of Theileria and Babesia infections in cattle. Veterinary Parasitolology, 158, 295–301. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bawm S., Htun L.L., Maw N.N., Ngwe T., Tosa Y., Kon T., et al. 2016. Molecular survey of Babesia infections in cattle from different areas of Myanmar. Ticks and Tick Borne Diseases, 7, 204–207. CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Cameron A. 1999. Survey Toolbox: A Practical Manual and Software Package for Active Surveillance of Livestock Diseases in Developing Countries. Australian Centre for International Agricultural ResearchGoogle Scholar

  • Cat J., Beugnet F., Hoch T., Jongejan F., Prangé A., Chalvet-Monfray K. 2017. Influence of the spatial heterogeneity in tick abundance in the modeling of the seasonal activityof Ixodes ricinus nymphs in Western Europe. Experimental Applied acarology, 71, 115–130. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Chaudhry Z., Suleman M., Younus M., Aslim A. 2010. Molecular detection of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis in crossbred carrier cattle through PCR. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 42, 201–204Google Scholar

  • Christensson D.A., Thorburn M.A. 1987. Age distribution of naturally occurring acute babesiosis in cattle in Sweden. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 28, 373–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Coles G.C. 2001. The future of veterinary parasitology. Veterinary Parasitology, 98, 31–39PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Costa-Junior L.M., Rabelo E.M., Martins Filho O.A., Ribeiro M.F. 2006. Comparison of different direct diagnostic methods to identify Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in animals vaccinated with live attenuated parasites. Veterinary Parasitolology, 139, 231–236. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • El-Ashker M., Hotzel H., Gwida M., El-Beskawy M., Silaghi C., Tomaso H. 2015. Molecular biological identification of Babesia, Theileria, and Anaplasma species in cattle in Egypt using PCR assays, gene sequence analysis and a novel DNA microarray. Veterinary Parasitology, 207, 329–334. CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • El-Fayomy A.O., Ghoneim A.M., Abu-Samak O.A., Khidr A.A. 2013. Contribution of Babesia to the illness of cows in Port Said Governorate, Egypt. Global Veteterinaria, 11, 118–222Google Scholar

  • Figueroa J.V., Chieves L.P., Johnson G.S., Buening G.M. 1993. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction based assay for the detection of Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Anaplasma marginale DNA in bovine blood. Veterinary Parasitolology, 50, 69–81CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gray J.S., Fitzgerald E., Strickland K.L. 1983. Prevalence of clinical babesiosis in an area in north Co Meath, Ireland. Veterinary Record, 113, 537–539Google Scholar

  • Ibrahim A., Elbehairy A., Mahran K., Awad W. 2009. Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of piroplasmids in naturally infected cattle in Egypt. Journal of Egyptian Veterinary Medical Association, 69, 197–209Google Scholar

  • Ibrahim H.M., Adjou Moumouni P.F., Mohammed-Geba K., Sheir S.K., Hashem I.S., Cao S., et al. 2013. Molecular and serological prevalence of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis in cattle and water buffalos under small-scale dairy farming in Beheira and Faiyum Provinces, Egypt. Veterinary Parasitology, 198, 187–192. CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Kirvar E., Ilhan T., Katzer F., Hooshmand-Rad P., Zweygarth E., Gersten- berg C., Phipps P., Brown C.G.D. 2000. Detection of Theileria annulata in cattle and vector ticks by PCR using the Tams1 gene sequences. Parasitology, 120, 245–254CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • L’hostis M., Chauvin A., Valentin A., Marchand A., Gorenflot A. 1995. Large scale survey of bovine babesiosis due to Babesia divergens in France. Veterinary Record, 136, 36–38CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Langley R.J., Gray J.S. 1987. Age-related susceptibility of the gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, to the bovine parasite, Babesia divergens. Experimental Parasitology, 64, 466–473CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Li Y., Luo Y., Cao S., Terkawi M.A., Lan D.T., Long P.T., et al. 2014. Molecular and seroepidemiological survey of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infections in cattle and water buffaloes in the central region of Vietnam. Tropical Biomedicine, 31, 406–413PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Lozano D.F.A. 2011. Modeling of parasitic diseases with vector of transmission: toxoplasmosis and babesiosis bovine: Universitat Politècnica de València. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • M’ghirbi Y., Hurtado A., Barandika J.F., Khlif K., Ketata Z., Bouattour A. 2008. A molecular survey of Theileria and Babesia parasites in cattle, with a note on the distribution of ticks in Tunisia. Parasitology Research, 103, 435–442. CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Mahmmod Y. 2012. Molecular detection of natural Babesia bovis infection from clinically infected and apparently healthy water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and crossbred cattle. Journal of Buffalo Science 1, 55–60. . 01.01.10CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Nayel M., El-Dakhly K.M., Aboulaila M., Elsify A., Hassan H., Ibrahim E., et al. 2012. The use of different diagnostic tools for Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle in Menofia, Egypt. Parasitology Research, 111, 1019–1024. CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Ogden N.H., Gwakisa P., Swai E., French N.P., Fitzpatrick J., Kambarage D., et al. 2003. Evaluation of PCR to detect Theileria parva in field-collected tick and bovine samples in Tanzania. Veterinary Parasitology, 112, 177–183. CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Oie A. 2008. Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals. Office International des Epizooties, Paris, France, 1092–1106Google Scholar

  • Ota N., Mizuno D., Kuboki N., et al. 2009. Epidemiological survey of Theileria orientalis infection in grazing cattle in the eastern part of Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 71, 937–944. http://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.71.937CrossrefWeb of Science

  • Rizk M.A., El-Sayed S.A., Terkawi M.A., et al. 2015. Optimization of a Fluorescence-Based Assay for Large-Scale Drug Screening against Babesia and Theileria Parasites. PLoS One 10. CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Safieldin M., Gadir A., Elmalik K. 2010. Factors affecting seasonal prevalence of blood parasites in dairy cattle in Omdurman locality, Sudan. Veterinary Research, 3, 32–37. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Schulze T. L., Jordan R. A., Schulze C. J., Hung R. W. 2009. Precipitation and temperature as predictors of local abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs. Journal of Medical. Entomology, 46, 1025–1029Google Scholar

  • Shahnawaz S., Ali M., Aslam M.A., Fatima R., Chaudhry Z.I., Hassan M.U.,, et al. 2011. A study on the prevalence of a tick-transmitted pathogen, Theileria annulata, and hematological profile of cattle from Southern Punjab (Pakistan). Parasitology Research, 109, 1155–1160. CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Silva M.G., Henriques G., Sanchez C., Marques P.X., Suarez C.E., Oliva A. 2009. First survey for Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infection in cattle from Central and Southern regions of Portugal using serological and DNA detection methods. Veterinary Parasitology, 166, 66–72. CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Singh A., Singh H., Singh N., Singh N., Rath S. 2014. Canine babesiosis in northwestern India: molecular detection and assessment of risk factors. BioMed research international, 1–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/741785Web of Science

  • Sivakumar T., Kothalawala H., Abeyratne S.A., Vimalakumar S.C., Meewewa A.S., Hadirampela D.T., et al. 2012. A PCR-based survey of selected Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle in Sri Lanka. Veterinary Parasitology, 190, 263–267. CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Spickler A.R. (Ed.) 2010. Emerging and exotic diseases of animals. first edition, CFSPH Iowa State University, USAGoogle Scholar

  • Sungirai M., Madder M., Moyo DZ., De Clercq P., Abatih E.N. 2015. An update on the ecological distribution of the Ixodidae ticks in Zimbabwe. Experimental Applied acarology, 66, 269–280. CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Uilenberg G. 2006. Babesia—a historical overview. Veterinary Parasitology, 138, 3–10. CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Wright I.G., Goodger B.V., Leatch G., Aylward J.H., Rode-Bramanis K., Waltisbuhl D.J. 1987. Protection of Babesia bigemina-immune animals against subsequent challenge with virulent Babesia bovis. Infection and Immunity, 55, 364–388PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Yu L., Terkawi M.A., Cruz-Flores M.J., Claveria F.G., Aboge G.O., Yamagishi J., et al. 2013. Epidemiological survey of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infections of cattle in Philippines. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 75, 995–998. CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Zintl A., Mulcahy G., Skerrett H.E., Taylor S.M., Gray J.S. 2003. Babesia divergens, a bovine blood parasite of veterinary and zoonotic importance. Clinical Microbiology Review, 16, 622–636. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Received: 2017-03-20

Revised: 2017-08-04

Accepted: 2017-08-08

Published Online: 2017-10-15

Published in Print: 2017-12-20


Conflict of interest: There are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication and there has been no financial support for this work that could have influenced its outcome.


Citation Information: Acta Parasitologica, Volume 62, Issue 4, Pages 796–804, ISSN (Online) 1896-1851, ISSN (Print) 1230-2821, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2017-0096.

Export Citation

© 2017 W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, PAS.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in