The works of François Villon had a remarkable impact on nineteenth-century literature. In Gérard de Nerval's novella “La Main enchantée” Villon is a “gallant outlaw” (Walter Scott), a favorite figure of the actual protagonist Godinot Chevassut. Nerval himself admired Villon's bohemianism. Théophile Gautier wrote a highly appreciative article on Villon in 1834, which became part of his collection “Les Grotesques” (1844). Heinrich Heine doesn't mention Villon, but four of his poems, “Testament,” “Vermächtniß,” “Der Philanthrop,” and “Rhampsenit,” seem to adopt Villon's legacy for Heine's own age. In the story of the Egyptian king Rhampsenit, Heine incorporates Villon's social and political critique, but in an orientalist perspective dear to the generation of 1830.