Auditor General of Canada. 2009. Environmental review at export development. Canada, Ottawa: Government of Canada.Google Scholar
Baron, D. 1995. “The nonmarket strategy system.” Sloan Management Review Fall 37(1): 73–85.Google Scholar
Bartlett, C. and S. Ghoshal. 1989. Managing across borders. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
Bebbington, A., J. Bury, D. Humphreys-Bebbington, J. Lingan, J. P. Munos and M. Scurrah. 2008. “Mining and social movements: struggles over livelihood and rural territorial development in the Andes.” World Development 36(12): 2888–2905.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
BCE Inc. v. 1976. Debentureholders (2008) 3 S.C.R. 560, 2008 SCC 69.Google Scholar
Bird, F. 2004. “Preparing to mine: RTZ in Madagascar.” In: F. Bird, E. Raufflet and J. Smucker, (eds.), International business and the dilemmas of development. Houndmills, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, Chapter 6.Google Scholar
Börzel, T. A., J. Hönke and C. Thauer (forthcoming). “Does it really take the State? Limited Statehood, Multinational Corporations and Corporate Responsibility in South Africa, Business and Politics.”Google Scholar
Braithwaite, J. and P. Drahos. 2000. Global business regulation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Brereton, D. 2002. The role of self-regulation in improving corporate social performance: the case of the mining industry. Paper given at current issues in regulation: enforcement and compliance Conference. Melbourne, VIC: Australian Institute of Criminology, September 2–3, 2002.Google Scholar
BSI. n.d. BS OHSAS 18001 Occupational health and safety. Accessible at: http://www.bsigroup.com/en/Assessment-and-certification-services/management-systems/Standards-and-Schemes/BSOHSAS-18001/. Accessed July 1, 2011.
Business and Human Rights. n.d. Voluntary principles on security and human rights. Accessible at: http://www.business-humanrights.org/ConflictPeacePortal/Specialinitiatives/VoluntaryPrinciples. Accessed April 28, 2011.
Business Wire. 2003. Manhattan minerals Corp.: centromin peru ruling on tambogrande option agreement. December 10, 2003. Accessible at: http://www.allbusiness.com/legal/labor-employment-law-alternative-dispute-resolution/5789354-1.html. Accessed September 14, 2010.
Campbell, B. 2011. “Corporate social responsibility and development in Africa: redefining the roles and responsibilities of public and private actors in the mining sector.” Resources Policy 37: 138–143.Google Scholar
Canadian Centre for the Study of Resource Conflict. 2009. Corporate social responsibility: movements and footprints of canadian mining and exploration firms in the developing world. Accessible at: http://www.miningwatch.ca. Accessed July 1, 2011.
Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability. 2010. Submission to the extractive sector CSR counsellor’s public consultation process. Accessible at: http://cnca-rcrce.ca/submission-to-the-extractive-sector-csr-counsellor%E2%80%99s-public-consultation-process/. Accessed July 1, 2011.
CAO. n.d. About the CAO: who we are. Accessible at: http://www.cao-ombudsman.org/about/whoweare/index.html. Accessed April 28, 2011.
Collins, D. 2011. UK firm agrees to pay compensation to Peruvian farmers. BBC, Accessible at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-14227670. Accessed July 23, 2011.
Compliance Adviser/Ombudsman. CAO. 2005. Assessment of a complaint submitted to CAO in relation to the Marlin mining project in Guatemala. Accessible at: http://www.cao-ombudsman.org/html-english/complaint_marlin.htm. Accessed July 1, 2011.
Coumans, C. 2008. Re: Fundamental concerns with the Goldcorp human rights impact assessment and erosion of trust in Canada’s responsible investment community’s shareholder proposal process. December 4, 2008. Accessible at: http://www.miningwatch.ca/en/letter-shareholder-group-re-human-rights-impact-assessment-Goldcorps-guatemala-mine. Accessed April 28, 2011.
Cyanide Code. n.d. International cyanide management code for the manufacture, transport and use of cyanide in the production of gold. Accessible at: http://www.cyanidecode.org/. Accessed April 28, 2011.
Dagenais, P. 2010. “Canadian mining industry wins with Bill C-300’s defeat.” Canadian Mining Journal. Available at: http://www.canadianminingjournal.com/news/canadian-mining-industry-wins-with-bill-c-300-s-defeat/1000395591/?type=Print%20Archives.
Dahlsrud, A. 2008. “How corporate social responsibility is defined: an analysis of 37 definitions.” Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 15: 1–13.Google Scholar
Dashwood, H. 2007. “Towards sustainable mining: the corporate role in the construction of global standards.” Multinational Business Review 15(1): 47–65.Google Scholar
Dashwood, H. 2011. “Sustainable development norms and CRS in the global mining sector.” In: J. Sagebien and N. Lindsay (eds.), Corporate social responsibility and governance ecosystems: emerging patterns in the stakeholder relationships of canadian mining companies operating in Latin America. New York, NY: Palgrave-Macmillan.Google Scholar
Deisley, D. 2011. CSR challenges of project development in developing countries: the Goldcorp perspective. Powerpoint and accompanying remarks of David L. Deisley, Executive Vice President, Corporate Affairs and General Counsel, Goldcorp Inc. at the Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada Conference. March 7, 2011.Google Scholar
Dhir, A. 2009. “Shadows and light: addressing information asymmetries through enhanced social disclosure in Canadian securities law.” Canadian Business Law Journal 47: 435.Google Scholar
Dhir, A. 2010. “Shareholder engagement in the embedded business corporation: investment activism, human rights and TWAIL discourse.” In: P. Zumbansen and C. Williams (eds.), The embedded firm, labour, corporate governance and finance capitalism. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
DiMaggio, P. and W. Powell. 1983. “The iron cage revisited institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields.” American Sociological Review 48: 147–160.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Doh, J. P., S. D. Howton, S. W. Howton and D. S. Siegel. 2010. “Does the market respond to an endorsement of social responsibility? The role of institutions, information, and legitimacy.” Journal of Management 36(6): 1461–1485.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Donaldson, T. and L. Preston. 1995. “The stakeholder theory of the corporation – concepts, evidence, and implications.” Academy of Management Review 20(1): 65–91.Google Scholar
Dow, J. N. 2010. Court orders peru to consult indigenous peoples on mining, oil projects. (September 1, 2010). Accessible at: http://www.tradingmarkets.com/news/stock-alert/mioie_dj-court-orders-peru-to-consult-indiginous-peoples-on-mining-oil-projects-1145502.html. Accessed April 28, 2011.
EITI. n.d. Extractive industries transparency initiative. Accessible at: http://eiti.org/. Accessed April 28, 2011.
Equator Principles. n.d. Equator principles. Accessible at: http://www.equator-principles.com/. Accessed April 28, 2011.
Export Development Corporation. n.d. Social responsibility – environment. Accessible at: http://www.edc.ca/english/social_environment.htm. Accessed April 28, 2011.
Finnemore, M. 1996. National interests in international society. Ithica, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Fossgard-Moser, T. and F. Bird. 2004. “Managing security problems through community relations: a comparative study of petroleum companies in colombia.” In: F. Bird, E. Raufflet and J. Smucker (eds.), International business and the dilemmas of development. Houndmills, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Freeman, E. R. 1984. Strategic management: a stakeholder approach. Marshfield, MA: Pitman Publishing.Google Scholar
Gallie, W. 1956. “Essentially contested concepts, proceedings of the aristotelian society 56, 167–198 reprinted.” In: M. Black (ed.), 1962. The importance of language. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc, pp. 121–146.Google Scholar
Goldcorp. n.d. Management approach. Accessible at: http://www.goldcorp.com/corporate_responsibility/reports/2010/6_management.php. Accessed July 1, 2011.
Goldcorp. 2010a. Goldcorp’s corporate social responsibility policy. Accessible at: http://www.goldcorp.com/_resources/CSR_Policy_Statement_English-feb9-11.pdf. Accessed April 28, 2011.
Goldcorp. 2010b. Human rights policy. Accessible at: http://www.goldcorp.com/_resources/CSR_Human_Rights_Policy_English-feb9-11.pdf. Accessed July 1, 2011.
Goldcorp. 2010c. Goldcorp named to Dow Jones sustainability index North America. Accessible at: http://www.goldcorp.com/news/goldcorp/2010/index.php?&content_id=810. Accessed July 1, 2011.
Goldcorp. 2010d. Goldcorp’s response to the marlin mine human rights assessment report. Accessible at: http://www.goldcorp.com/_resources/Goldcorps_Response_to_Marlin_Mine_HRA_report_final_06_29_10.pdf. Accessed July 1, 2011.
Government of Canada. 2009. Building the Canadian advantage: a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategy for the Canadian international extractive sector. Accessible at: http://www.international.gc.ca/trade-agreements-accords-commerciaux/ds/csr-strategy-rse-stategie.aspx. Accessed July 1, 2011.
GRI. n.d. What is GRI? Accessible at: http://www.globalreporting.org/AboutGRI/WhatIsGRI/. Accessed April 28, 2011.
Griffin, J. and C. Koerber. 2011. “Corporate responsibility and management: understanding global and local implications.” In: T. L. Fort (ed.), The vision of the firm and its governance. Springer.Google Scholar
Gunningham, N., Kagan, R.A. and Thornton, D. 2003. Shades of green: business, regulation and the environment. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Haslam, P. 2004. The corporate social responsibility system in Latin America and the Caribbean. Canada, ON: Canadian Foundation for the Americas (FOCAL).Google Scholar
Hillgenberg, H. 1999. “A fresh look at soft law.” 10 European Journal of International Law 10(3): 499–516.Google Scholar
Hoffman, A. 2008. “Goldcorp bested by Mayan mother.” Globe and Mail (10 July 2008). Available at: https://secure.globeadvisor.com/servlet/ArticleNews/story/gam/20080710/RMINING10.
House of Commons. 2005. Standing committee on foreign affairs and international trade. Fourteenth Report, June 20, 2005.Google Scholar
ICMM. n.d. Sustainable development framework. Accessible at: http://www.icmm.com/our-work/sustainable-development-framework. Accessed April 28, 2011.
IFC. 2006. Performance standards on social and environmental sustainability. Accessible at: http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/sustainability.nsf/AttachmentsByTitle/pol_Performance-Standards2006_PSIntro/$FILE/PS_Intro.pdf. Accessed April 28, 2011.
ILO. 2011. Ratifications of ILO 169. Accessible at: http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/ratifce.pl?C169. Accessed July 1, 2011.
Imai, S. et al. 2007. “Breaching indigenous law: Canadian Mining in Guatemala.” Indigenous Law Journal 6(1): 101–139.Google Scholar
Imbun, B. 2006. “Cannot manage without the ‘significant other’: mining, corporate social responsibility and local communities in Papua New Guinea.” Journal of Business Ethics 73(2): 177–192.Google Scholar
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. 2010. Precautionary measures granted by the commission during 2010 – PM 260-07 communities of the Maya people (Sipakenpense and Mam) of the Sipacapa and San Miguel Ixtahuacan Municipalities in the Department of San Marcos, Guatemala. Accessible at http://www.cidh.oas.org/medidas/2010.eng.htm. Accessed July 1, 2011.
International Labour Conference. 2010. 98th Session 2010 Report of the committee of experts on the application of conventions and recommendations. Accessible at: http://www.ilo.org/scmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_103484.pdf. Accessed July 1, 2011.
International Organization for Standardization. 2010. ISO 26000: Guidance on social responsibility. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization.Google Scholar
International Organization for Standardization. n.d. ISO 14000 Essentials. Accessible at: http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_14000_essentials. Accessed July 1, 2011.
Jantzi Research. 2008. Jantzi research recommends Goldcorp as ineligible for SRI portfolios. Accessible at: http://sustainalytics.com/jantzi-research-recommends-goldcorp-ineligible-sri-portfolios. Accessed July 1, 2011.
Jenkins, H. 2004. “Responsibility and the mining industry: conflicts and constructs.” Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 34: 23–34.Google Scholar
Jenkins, H. and N. Yakovleva. 2006. “Corporate social responsibility in the mining industry: exploring trends in social and environmental disclosure.” Journal of Cleaner Production 14: 271–284.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kapelus, P. 2002. “Mining, corporate social responsibility and the ‘community’: the case of Rio Tinto, Richards Bay minerals and the Mbonambi.” Journal of Business Ethics 39(3): 275–296.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Keck, M. and K. Sikkink. 1998. Activitists beyond borders. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Keenan, K. 2010. “Canadian mining: still unaccountable” NACLA Report on the Americas, May/June 2010, pp. 29–42. Available at: https://nacla.org/files/A043030031_8.pdf.
KPMG. 2006. Global mining reporting survey 2006. KPMG: London.Google Scholar
Krugel, L. 2011. Niko Resources pleads guilty to bribe charge. Toronto Star, June 24, 2011.Google Scholar
Lindsay, N. 2011. “Mining industry associations and CSR discourse: mapping the terrain of sustainable development strategies.” In: J. Sagebien and N. Lindsay (eds.), Corporate social responsibility and governance ecosystems: emerging patterns in the stakeholder relationships of canadian mining companies operating in Latin America. New York, NY: Palgrave-Macmillan.Google Scholar
Luceah, R. and J. Doh. 2011. Building international CSR on solid foundations: locational aspects of nonmarket environments. Paper presented at Workshop on Multilevel CR, University of Washington, Seattle, May, 2011.Google Scholar
Maheandiran, B., J. DiFederico, R. Aguilera Olthuis and S. Imai. 2010. Goldcorp and HudBay minerals in Guatemala. Osgoode Hall Law School Research Paper Series (Toronto: Research Paper No. 09/2010).Google Scholar
March, J. and J. Olsen. 1999. “The institutional dynamics of international political orders.” In: P. Katzenstein, R.Ol. Keohane and S. Krasner (eds.), Exploration and contestation in the study of world politics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
McGee, B. 2009. “The community referendum: participatory democracy and the right to free, prior and informed consent.” 27 Berkeley Journal of International Law 27(2): 570–635.Google Scholar
Mining Association of Canada. 2009. Facts and figures 2009: a report on the state of the Canadian Mining Industry. Accessible at: http://www.mining.ca/www/media_lib/MAC_Documents/Publications/2009/2009_F_and_F_English.pdf. Accessed July 1, 2011.
Mining Association of Canada (MAC). 2010. Towards sustainable mining – progress report 2010. Available at: http://extras.newswire.ca/smr/PDF/MAC_TSM_Progress_Report.pdf.
MiningWatch Canada. 2010. The organization of American states’ human rights commission, the region’s most respected human rights body, calls on the Guatemalan government and Goldcorp to halt mining (May 24, 2010). Accessible at: http://www.miningwatch.ca/en/oas-human-rights-commission-urges-suspension-mining-activity-goldcorps-marlin-mine-guatemala. Accessed April 28, 2011.
MiningWatch Canada. 2011. Sources for Shareholder resolution. Submitted to Goldcorp Inc. (March 21 2011). Available at: http://www.miningwatch.ca/sites/www.miningwatch.ca/files/Sources_accompanying_resolution_and_release_21-03-2011.pdf.
Mining Weekly. 2010. Guatemala says to suspend Goldcorp’s Marlin mine (June 24, 2010). Accessible at: http://www.miningweekly.com/article/guatemala-says-to-suspend-goldcorps-marlin-2010-06-04. Accessed July 1, 2011.
Muradian, R., J. Martinez-Alier and H. Correa. 2003. “International capital versus local population: the environmental conflict of the tambogrande mining project, Peru.” Society and Natural Resources 16(9): 775–792.Google Scholar
National Contact Point (Canada). 2011. Annual report 2011: Canada’s national contact point for the OECD guidelines for multinational enterprises. Accessible at: http://www.international.gc.ca/trade-agreements-accords-commerciaux/ncp-pcn/report2011-rapport2011.aspx?lang=eng#appendix_a. Accessed July 1, 2011.
National Contact Point (Canada). n.d. Specific instances. Accessible at: http://www.international.gc.ca/trade-agreements-accords-commerciaux/ncp-pcn/specific-specifique.aspx?lang=eng&menu_id=7. Accessed April 28, 2011.
National Roundtables on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and the Canadian Extractive Industry in Developing Countries. (2007, March). Advisory group report. Retrieved October, 20, 2008, from http://geo.international.gc.ca/cip-pic/library/ Advisory Group Report – March 2007.pdf.
North, L. 2011. “Bad neighbors: Canadian mining companies in Latin America.” Canadian Dimension 45(1): 19–23.Google Scholar
Odell, C. 2011. “Anti-corruption: a realistic strategy in Latin American mining?” In: J. Sagebien and N. Lindsay (eds.), Corporate social responsibility and governance ecosystems: emerging patterns in the stakeholder relationships of canadian mining companies operating in Latin America. New York, NY: Palgrave-Macmillan.Google Scholar
Odell, C. and A. Silva. 2006. Mining exploration, corporate social responsibility and human rights: untangling the facts, seeking solutions, presentation prepared for the prospectors and developers association of Canada. Accessible at: www.pdac.ca/pdac/advocacy/csr/odell-silva-mining-exploration.pdf. Accessed July 1, 2011.Google Scholar
OECD. n.d. Guidelines for multinational enterprises. Accessible at: www.oecd.org/daf/investment/guidelines. Accessed April 28, 2011.Google Scholar
On Common Ground. 2010. Goldcorp Marlin Mine HRIA final report. Available on goldcorp steering committee for the human rights assessment of the Marlin Mine website. Accessible at: http://www.hria-guatemala.com/en/MarlinHumanRights.htm. Accessed April 28, 2011.
Poppelwell, B. 2010. Critics plan to ask for RCMP investigation of Calgary company’s operations in Mexico. Toronto Star, March 10, 2010.Google Scholar
Prakash, A. 2000. Greening the firm: the politics of corporate environmentalism. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Probe International. n.d. Projects supported by export development Canada (EDC). Accessible at: http://www.probeinternational.org/files/EDC%20projects%20since%202001.pdf. Accessed July 1, 2011.
Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada. n.d. E3 plus framework for responsible exploration. Accessible at: http://www.pdac.ca/e3plus/. Accessed July 1, 2011.
Puplampu, B. 2004. “Capacity building, asset development, and corporate values: a study of three international firms in Ghana.” In: F. Bird and S. Herman (eds.), International businesses and the challenges of poverty in the developing world. Houndmills, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, Chapter 4, pp. 75–97.Google Scholar
Rights Action. 2008. Investing in conflict: public money, private gain – Goldcorp in the Americas. Accessible at http://www.rightsaction.org/Reports/research.pdf. Accessed April 1, 2011.
Rights Action. 2011. Goldcorp impunity watch. May 15, 2011. Accessible at: http://www.rightsaction.org/articles/Goldcorp_blind_investors_051511.html. Accessed July 1, 2011.
Risse, T. and K. Sikkink. 1999. “The socialization of international human rights norms into domestic practices: introduction.” In: T. Risse, S. R. Ropp and K. Sikkink (eds.), The power of human rights: international norms and domestic change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–38.Google Scholar
Rosenzweig, P. and J. Singh. 1991. “Organizational environments and the multinational enterprise.” Academy of Management Review 16(2): 340–361.Google Scholar
Ruggie, J. 2008. Protect, respect, remedy: a framework for business and human rights. Human rights council of the United Nations, A/HRC/8/5.Google Scholar
Sagebien, J., N. Lindsay, P. Campbell, R. Cameron and N. Smith. 2008. “The corporate social responsibility of Canadian mining companies in Latin America: a systems perspective.” Canadian Foreign Policy 14(3): 103–128.Google Scholar
Scott, W. 1995. Institutions and organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Shamir, R. 2004. “Between self-regulation and the alien tort claims act: on the contested concept of corporate social responsibility.” Law and Society Review 38: 635–664.Google Scholar
Sosa, I. 2011. “Responsible investment case studies: newmont and Goldcorp.” In: J. Sagebien and N. Lindsay (eds.), Corporate social responsibility and governance ecosystems: emerging patterns in the stakeholder relationships of canadian mining companies operating in Latin America. New York, NY: Palgrave-Macmillan.Google Scholar
Social Funds. 2009. Canadian SRI assets increased to $609 billion in 2008. Accessible at: http://www.wbcsd.org/plugins/DocSearch/details.asp?txtDocTitle=tool&txtDocText=tool&DocTypeId=-1&ObjectId=MzQzNDI&URLBack=result.asp%3FtxtDocTitle%3Dtool%26txtDocText%3Dtool%26DocTypeId%3D-1%26SortOrder%3D%26CurPage%3D11. Accessed July 1, 2011.
Suchman, M. 1995. “Managing legitimacy: strategic and institutional approaches.” Academy of Management Review 20(3): 571–610.Google Scholar
Szablowski, D. 2007. Transnational law and local struggles. Portland, Ore: Hart Publishing.Google Scholar
UNDP. 2011. Human development report. Accessible at: http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2011/download/. Accessed March 5, 2012.
UNDP. n.d. Composite indices – HDI and beyond. Accessible at: http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/indices/. Accessed March 5, 2012.
UN Global Compact. n.d. United nations global compact. Accessible at: http://www.unglobalcompact.org/. Accessed April 28, 2011.
United Nations Human Rights Council. 2011. Guiding principles on business and human rights: implementing the United Nations ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework. Accessible at: http://www.business-humanrights.org/SpecialRepPortal/Home/Protect-Respect-Remedy-Framework/GuidingPrinciples. Accessed July 1, 2011.
Valeriote, J. 2009. “Chile’s supreme court upholds indigenous water use rights.” Santiago Times November 30, 2009. Accessible at: http://www.santiagotimes.cl/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=17739:chiles-supreme-court-upholds-indigenous-water-use-rights&catid=19:other&Itemid=142. Accessed April 28, 2011.
van Duzer, A. 2003. The law of partnerships and corporations. Toronto: Irwin Law.Google Scholar
Vasquez, P. 2010. Energy and conflicts: a growing concern in Latin America. Inter-American development bank energy working paper. Accessible at: http://www.iadb.org/intal/intalcdi/PE/2010/07484.pdf. Accessed July 1, 2011.
Vogel, D. 2005. The market for virtue: the potential and limits of corporate social responsibility. Washington, DC: Brookings.Google Scholar
Webb, K. 2011. “Corporate social responsibility and the law: learning from the experience of Canadian mining companies in Latin America.” In: J. Sagebien and N. Lindsay (eds.), Corporate social responsibility and governance ecosystems: emerging patterns in the stakeholder relationships of Canadian mining companies operating in Latin America. New York, NY: Palgrave-Macmillan.Google Scholar
World Bank, Worldwide Governance Indicators Project. 2010. Accessible at: http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/mc_chart.asp. Accessed March 5, 2012.
Zamprile, A. and A. Llorente. 2009. The social license to operate in the Latin American mining sector: the cases of Bajo De La Alumbrera and Michiquillay (June 15, 2009). 22nd Annual IACM Conference Paper. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1488624.
About the article
Published Online: 2012-10-31
For the purposes of this paper, norms are defined as collectively held understandings of acceptable behavior within a given realm. Finnemore 1996.
This paper will follow the approach of other scholars who use the terms “corporate responsibility” and “corporate social responsibility” (CSR) inter-changeably (e.g., Garriga and Mele 2004; Shamir 2004; Vogel 2005). CSR has been characterized by Okoye (2009) as meeting the criteria for an “essentially contested concept” (Gallie 1956). Okoye (2009) describes CSR as a complex and evolving phenomenon with a diversity of descriptive and normative justifications, addressing a dynamic relationship between corporations and different elements and levels of society. Dahlsrud (2008) has noted the considerable diversity of definitions of CSR employed by academics and others, but also concludes that there is fairly widespread agreement around the idea that CSR involves stakeholder and voluntary elements, pertaining to the ESE dimensions of corporate activity. Consistent with Dahlsrud’s analysis, and leading scholars such as Carroll (1999) this paper follows Prakash (2000: pp. 3–6) in defining CR as the obligations of companies towards their stakeholders in the areas of human rights, labor, and the environment, with compliance with law as the minimum acceptable behavior, and CR extending to encompass voluntary commitments or obligations that go beyond regulatory requirements.
See, e.g., Cragg and Greenbaum 2002; Kapelus 2002; Szablowski 2002, 2007; Bird 2004; Jenkins 2004; Puplampu 2004; Whiteman 2004; Imbun 2006; Pegg 2006; Dashwood 2007, 2011; Imai et al. 2007; Szablowski 2007; Sagebien et al. 2008; Campbell 2011; Lindsay 2011; Odell 2011; Sagebien and Lindsay 2011; Sosa 2011; Webb 2011.
Baron 1995. The author states that for business managers, the challenge of understanding nonmarket forces – government, interest groups, activists, and the public – is frequently more difficult than understanding the market environment. He refers to this as the “nonmarket environment.”
Dashwood 2007: p. 50.
Campbell 2006: p. 926.
Campbell 2006: p. 926.
Campbell 2006: p. 931.
Keck and Sikkink 1998: p. 30.
Keck and Sikkink 1998: p. 9.
Hoffman 2001: p. 7.
Rosenzweig and Singh 1991.
E.g., Keck and Sikkink 1998.
Braithwaite and Drahos 2000.
It is also possible for intergovernmental instruments that originally might be characterized as “soft law” to evolve through state practice to be recognized as part of “customary international law,” and thereby develop a more binding status.
Prakash 2000 and Borzel et al. 2011.
Borzel et al. 2011; Prakash and Potoski (2012).
Russell et al. 2010.
Government of Canada 2009.
Mining Association of Canada 2009.
Sagebien et al. 2008.
See e.g., Whiteman and Mamen 2002; Muradian et al. 2003; Odell and Silva 2006; Imai et al. 2007; Fulmer et al. 2008; Sagebien et al. 2008; CCSRC 2009; Keenan 2010; Maheandiran et al. 2010; North 2011. In terms of non-Canadian firms, incidents of alleged ESE misconduct at the Latin American operations of non-Canadian extractive sector firms have been discussed by a number of scholars (see, e.g., Olsen 2002; Whiteman and Mamen 2002; Fossgard-Moser and Bird 2004; Munoz et al. 2007; Bebbington et al. 2008; Zamprile and Llorente 2009; Collins 2011; Kemp et al. 2011).
House of Commons 2005.
Government of Canada 2009. A private member’s bill (Bill C-300) attempted to create such a new CR legal instrument but it was narrowly defeated in 2010 (Dagenais 2010). If Bill C-300 had passed it would have mandated that firms receiving funding from the Export Development Corporation and the Canada Pension Plan meet binding CR standards, with failure to do so preventing the company in question from further funding, and it would have included a mechanism for investigating complaints of non-conformance with the aforesaid CR standards, regardless of whether or not the company in question had consented to be the subject of the investigation (Dagenais 2010).
Goldcorp’s Guatemalan operations have been the subject of a complaint raised pursuant to the OECD MNE Guidelines, as discussed in Section 5.
In the BCE Inc. v. 1976 Debentureholders (2008), the Supreme Court of Canada held that directors owe a fiduciary duty to ensure the long-term best interests of the corporation viewed as a “good corporate citizen”, and in the course of their duties may consider a variety of interests including communities, consumers, shareholders, government, and the environment (Webb 2011).
Van Duzer 2003.
Government of Canada 2009.
Government of Canada 2009.
Auditor General of Canada 2009.
Social Investment 2009.
Rights Action 2011.
Doh et al. 2010.
Doh et al. 2010.
Doh et al. 2010.
Jantzi Research 2008.
Jantzi Research 2008.
Mining Association of Canada 2010.
For example, in 2010, the Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability made a submission to the Extractive Sector CSR Counsellor’s Public Consultation Process (Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability 2010). For the purposes of the submission the coalition acted on behalf of: Amnesty International Canada, Friends of the Earth Canada, the Halifax Initiative Coalition, KAIROS: Canadian Ecumenical Justice Initiatives, the Mennonite Central Committee Canada, MiningWatch Canada, Publish What You Pay – Canada, the Steelworkers Humanity Fund, and the United Church of Canada Process (Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability 2010).
See, Szablowski 2002; Odell and Silva 2006; Imai et al. 2007; Munoz et al. 2007; Szablowski 2007; Sagebien et al. 2008; Vasquez 2010; Odell 2011.
The Human Development Index provides a composite measure of three dimensions of human development: living a long and healthy life (measured by life expectancy), being educated (measured by adult literacy and enrolment at the primary, secondary and tertiary level) and having a decent standard of living (measured by purchasing power parity). The index is not in any sense a comprehensive measure of human development. It does not, for example, include important indicators such as gender or income inequality and more difficult to measure indicators like respect for human rights and political freedoms. What it does provide is a broadened prism for viewing human progress and the complex relationship between income and well-being. Per: UNDP, nd.
Fulmer et al. 2008: p. 95.
Fulmer et al. 2008: pp. 95–96.
Fulmer et al. 2008: p. 96.
According to the World Bank Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) project, governance is defined as the set of traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised. This includes (1) the process by which governments are selected, monitored and replaced, (2) the capacity of the government to effectively formulate and implement sound policies, and (3) the respect of citizens and the state for the institutions that govern economic and social interactions among them. Per World Bank 2010.
World Bank 2010.
World Bank 2010.
Fulmer et al. 2008: p. 98.
Fulmer et al. 2008: p. 98.
Fulmer et al. 2008: pp. 98–99.
Imai et al. 2007.
Imai et al. 2007: p. 125.
Imai et al. 2007: p. 127.
Imai et al. 2007: p. 127.
Imai et al. 2007: p. 127. All this having been said, Guatemalan court decisions have supported several community challenges to mining related laws, as discussed in Section 5.
The following account of the situation at the Marlin Mine in Guatemala is a composite based on information from Compliance Adviser/Ombudsman (CAO) 2005; Imai et al. 2007; Coumans 2008; Fulmer et al. 2008; Hoffman 2008; Jantzi Research 2008; Rights Action 2008; Dhir 2010; Goldcorp 2010b,d; Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 2010; International Labor Conference 2010; Maheandiran et al. 2010; On Common Ground 2010; Deisley 2011; MiningWatch Canada 2011; National Contact Point 2011; Sosa 2011.
Fulmer et al. 2008.
Sosa 2011: references omitted.
Keck and Sikkink 1998.
For an assortment of media articles and programs critical of Goldcorp’s Guatemalan activities, go to: https://www.miningwatch.ca/categories/main-categories/company/goldcorp.
Fulmer et al. 2008: p. 93.
CAO 2005: p. iii.
CAO 2005: pp. iii–iv.
Fulmer et al. (2008: p. 100), state that “[w]hile the Municipal Code attempts to respect “the particular standards of the customs and traditions” of indigenous groups (which presumably include consensus-based decision-making, including voting by show of hands), it establishes a higher standard of participation for such votes to be considered binding (50% of registered voters instead of 20%).” In the case of the Sipicapa referendum, participation was slightly <50%.
Imai et al. 2007: p. 126.
Maheandiran et al. 2010: p. 3.
E.g., Imai et al. 2007.
Jantzi Research 2008.
E.g., Coumans 2008.
E.g., Hoffman 2008.
Imai et al. 2007. Another shareholder proposal was also initiated in 2008, initiated by an individual shareholder, calling for Goldcorp to halt any plans to expand the mine without the free, prior and informed consent of the affected communities (Sosa 2011). Goldcorp refused to circulate this resolution, arguing that it did not relate to the business of the corporation (Sosa 2011).
National Contact Point 2011.
National Contact Point 2011.
Deisley 2011 and Sosa 2011.
On Common Ground 2010.
On Common Ground 2010.
Deisley 2010 and Goldcorp 2010a.
Deisley 2010 and Goldcorp 2010b.
Goldcorp, nd and Goldcorp 2010b. This approach appears to represent an effort by Goldcorp to secure a social licence to operate its Marlin mine (Gunningham et al. 2003), derived from expectations of economic, legal and social stakeholders, and as such the licence to operate concept is consistent with institutional perspectives (DiMaggio and Powell 1983; Scott 1995; Dashwood 2007) and theorists examining the importance of stakeholder relations (e.g., Freeman 1984; Donaldson and Preston 1995; Luceah and Doh 2011) in that it suggests that firms are dependent on various stakeholders to obtain access to resources, and that the activities of these stakeholders play roles in defining the nature of the licence.
Goldcorp 2010b. Appendix A contains a listing of more than 25 international instruments referred to by Goldcorp in its CR Policy, Human Rights Policy, and in other Goldcorp documents.
While the focus of attention in this section has been on the Goldcorp shareholder proposal for an HRA and the actions and events that transpired thereafter, it is important to note that ESE issues at Goldcorp’s Marlin mine continue to be a focus of critical attention, and it is equally important to acknowledge that more changes are likely to transpire. Examples of recent ESE-related events at Marlin Mine largely taking place outside of the HRIA process include:
a 2010 ILO Committee of Experts request to the Government of Guatemala that it neither grant nor renew any licence for exploration and exploitation of natural resources while participation and consultation as per ILO 169 “are not being carried out” (International Labor Conference 2010);
a 2010 recommendation from the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) that the Government of Guatemala carry out “precautionary measures” (interim) re: alleged water contamination and wells drying up, including suspending the Marlin mine until such time as the IACHR adopts a decision on the merits (Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 2010);
in response to the 2010 IACHR recommendations, the initiation by the Guatemalan government of an administrative process to further investigate the claims, coupled with communications from the Guatemalan government to residents indicating that there is no evidence of water contamination (Mining Weekly 2010); and an unsuccessful 2011 shareholder proposal calling for suspension of the Marlin Mine (Sosa 2011).
Prakash 2002; Griffin and Koerber 2011.
Keck and Sikkink 1998.
Campbell 2006: p. 932.
Campbell 2006: p. 931.
E.g., Kapelus 2002; Imbun 2006; Jenkins and Yakovleva 2006; Campbell 2011; Kemp et al. 2011.