Thomas, Douglas D.
Editor-in-Chief: Brüne, Bernhard
Editorial Board Member: Buchner, Johannes / Lei, Ming / Ludwig, Stephan / Sies, Helmut / Turk, Boris / Wittinghofer, Alfred
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Adjuvant and Haemolytic Activities of 47 Saponins Derived from Medicinal and Food Plants
Adjuvant and haemolytic activities of 47 saponins purified from medicinal and food plants were examined. The compounds showed various levels of both adjuvant and haemolytic activities. Soyasaponins and lablabosides showed strong adjuvant activity but little haemolytic activity. Jujubosides showed strong adjuvant and haemolytic activities. Escins showed weaker adjuvant activity than the adjuvant-control, but strong haemolytic activity. Comparison of the functional groups of each saponin revealed that the acyl residue in saponin, the aldehyde group at carbon 4 in aglycone, and branched sugar chains attached to aglycone, were not essential for adjuvant activity. Furthermore, saponins with an acyl residue or oxide-ring moiety tended to show haemolytic activity. These results suggest that the adjuvant activity of saponins does not relate with haemolytic activity. It is considered that not only the functional groups themselves, but the overall conformation harmoniously consisting of such functional groups, affects adjuvant activity of saponins.
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