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Glycoproteins from Insect Cells: Sialylated or Not?
Citation Information: Biological Chemistry. Volume 382, Issue 2, Pages 151–159, ISSN (Print) 1431-6730, DOI: 10.1515/BC.2001.023, June 2005
- Published Online:
Our growing comprehension of the biological roles of glycan moieties has created a clear need for expression systems that can produce mammaliantype glycoproteins. In turn, this has intensified interest in understanding the protein glycosylation pathways of the heterologous hosts that are commonly used for recombinant glycoprotein expression. Among these, insect cells are the most widely used and, particularly in their role as hosts for baculovirus expression vectors, provide a powerful tool for biotechnology. Various studies of the glycosylation patterns of endogenous and recombinant glycoproteins produced by insect cells have revealed a large variety of O and Nlinked glycan structures and have established that the major processed O and Nglycan species found on these glycoproteins are (Galß1,3)GalNAcOSer/Thr and Man3(Fuc)GlcNAc2-NAsn, respectively. However, the ability or inability of insect cells to synthesize and compartmentalize sialic acids and to produce sialylated glycans remains controversial. This is an important issue because terminal sialic acid residues play diverse biological roles in many glycoconjugates. While most work indicates that insect cellderived glycoproteins are not sialylated, some wellcontrolled studies suggest that sialylation can occur. In evaluating this work, it is important to recognize that oligosaccharide structural determination is tedious work, due to the infinite diversity of this class of compounds. Furthermore, there is no universal method of glycan analysis; rather, various strategies and techniques can be used, which provide glycobiologists with relatively more or less precise and reliable results. Therefore, it is important to consider the methodology used to assess glycan structures when evaluating these studies. The purpose of this review is to survey the studies that have contributed to our current view of glycoprotein sialylation in insect cell systems, according to the methods used. Possible reasons for the disagreement on this topic in the literature, which include the diverse origins of biological material and experimental artifacts, will be discussed. In the final analysis, it appears that if insect cells have the genetic potential to perform sialylation of glycoproteins, this is a highly specialized function that probably occurs rarely. Thus, the production of sialylated recombinant glycoproteins in the baculovirusinsect cell system will require metabolic engineering efforts to extend the native protein glycosylation pathways of insect cells.
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