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Biological Chemistry

Editor-in-Chief: Brüne, Bernhard

Editorial Board Member: Buchner, Johannes / Lei, Ming / Ludwig, Stephan / Sies, Helmut / Turk, Boris / Wittinghofer, Alfred

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Glutathione Pathways in the Brain

R. Dringen / J. Hirrlinger

Citation Information: Biological Chemistry. Volume 384, Issue 4, Pages 505–516, ISSN (Print) 1431-6730, DOI: 10.1515/BC.2003.059, June 2005

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The antioxidant glutathione (GSH) is essential for the cellular detoxification of reactive oxygen species in brain cells. A compromised GSH system in the brain has been connected with the oxidative stress occuring in neurological diseases. Recent data demonstrate that besides intracellular functions GSH has also important extracellular functions in brain. In this respect astrocytes appear to play a key role in the GSH metabolism of the brain, since astroglial GSH export is essential for providing GSH precursors to neurons. Of the different brain cell types studied in vitro only astrocytes release substantial amounts of GSH. In addition, during oxidative stress astrocytes efficiently export glutathione disulfide (GSSG). The multidrug resistance protein 1 participates in both the export of GSH and GSSG from astrocytes. This review focuses on recent results on the export of GSH and GSSG from brain cells as well as on the functions of extracellular GSH in the brain. In addition, implications of disturbed GSH pathways in brain for neurodegenerative diseases will be discussed.

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V��clav Ourednik, Jitka Ourednik, Yifang Xu, Ying Zhang, William P. Lynch, Evan Y. Snyder, and Melitta Schachner
Stem Cells, 2009, Volume 27, Number 11, Page 2846
Alison L. Wadey, Hakan Muyderman, Perrin T. Kwek, and Neil R. Sims
Journal of Neurochemistry, 2009, Volume 109, Page 101
Jan Lewerenz, Philipp Albrecht, Mai-Ly Tran Tien, Nadine Henke, Saravanan Karumbayaram, Harley I. Kornblum, Martina Wiedau-Pazos, Dave Schubert, Pamela Maher, and Axel Methner
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European Journal of Neurology, 2009, Volume 16, Number 6, Page 755
Jeff R. Liddell, Claudia Zwingmann, Maike M. Schmidt, Anette Thiessen, Dieter Leibfritz, Stephen R. Robinson, and Ralf Dringen
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Jun-Feng Wang, Li Shao, Xiujun Sun, and L Trevor Young
Bipolar Disorders, 2009, Volume 11, Number 5, Page 523
Margarida Castro-Caldas, Andreia Neves Carvalho, Isabel Peixeiro, Elsa Rodrigues, Maria Celeste Lechner, and Maria João Gama
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 2009, Volume 38, Number 2, Page 114
Suzie Lavoie, Ying Chen, Timothy P. Dalton, René Gysin, Michel Cuénod, Pascal Steullet, and Kim Q. Do
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Mikael Persson, Mats Sandberg, Elisabeth Hansson, and Lars Rönnbäck
European Journal of Neuroscience, 2006, Volume 24, Number 4, Page 1063
Aderbal S. Aguiar, Talita Tuon, Mirella M. Albuquerque, Gláucia S. Rocha, Ana E. Speck, Júlio C. Araújo, Alcir L. Dafré, Rui D. S. Prediger, and Ricardo A. Pinho
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Gregor E Berger, Stephen J Wood, R Mark Wellard, Tina M Proffitt, Mirabel McConchie, G Paul Amminger, Graeme D Jackson, Dennis Velakoulis, Christos Pantelis, and Patrick D McGorry
Neuropsychopharmacology, 2008, Volume 33, Number 10, Page 2467
Michael Cross, Rüdiger Alt, and Dietger Niederwieser
Cells Tissues Organs, 2008, Volume 188, Number 1-2, Page 150
Simon A. S. Pope, Rosemary Milton, and Simon J. R. Heales
Neurochemical Research, 2008, Volume 33, Number 7, Page 1410
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Lúcia Maria Vieira de Almeida, Cristopher Celintano Piñeiro, Marina Concli Leite, Giovana Brolese, Rodrigo Bainy Leal, Carmem Gottfried, and Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves
Neurochemical Research, 2008, Volume 33, Number 1, Page 8
Natalia A. Crivello, Irwin H. Rosenberg, Barbara Shukitt-Hale, Donna Bielinski, Gerard E. Dallal, and James A. Joseph
AGE, 2007, Volume 29, Number 4, Page 191
Ralf Dringen, Glenda M. Bishop, Maico Koeppe, Theresa N. Dang, and Stephen R. Robinson
Neurochemical Research, 2007, Volume 32, Number 11, Page 1884
Jens Waak and Ralf Dringen
Neurochemical Research, 2006, Volume 31, Number 12, Page 1409
Marat V. Avshalumov, Li Bao, Jyoti C. Patel, and Margaret E. Rice
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 2006, Volume 0, Number 0, Page 061121054212001
Jean-François Ghersi-Egea, Nathalie Strazielle, Audrey Murat, Anne Jouvet, Annie Buénerd, and Marie-Françoise Belin
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, 2006
Daniel Kondziella, Eiliv Brenner, Elvar M Eyjolfsson, Katarina Ryden Markinhuhta, Maria L Carlsson, and Ursula Sonnewald
Neuropsychopharmacology, 2006, Volume 31, Number 9, Page 1880
Martin Hasselblatt, Hannelore Ehrenreich, and Anna-Leena Sir??n
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, 2006, Volume 18, Number 2, Page 132
Tobias Minich, Jan Riemer, Jörg B. Schulz, Peter Wielinga, Jan Wijnholds, and Ralf Dringen
Journal of Neurochemistry, 2006, Volume 97, Number 2, Page 373
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Laboratory Investigation, 2005
Johannes Hirrlinger, Heinz Moeller, Frank Kirchhoff, and Ralf Dringen
Neurochemical Research, 2005, Volume 30, Number 10, Page 1237
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Journal of Neuroscience Research, 2005, Volume 82, Number 6, Page 851
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Free Radical Research, 2006, Volume 40, Number 1, Page 75
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Glia, 2005, Volume 52, Number 2, Page 144
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Vittorio Calabrese, A.M. Giuffrida Stella, D. Allan Butterfield, and Giovanni Scapagnini
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 2004, Volume 6, Number 5, Page 895
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European Journal of Neuroscience, 2004, Volume 20, Number 5, Page 1255
Ralf Dringen, Petra G. Pawlowski, and Johannes Hirrlinger
Journal of Neuroscience Research, 2005, Volume 79, Number 1-2, Page 157
Daniel S. Evanko, Qi Zhang, Robert Zorec, and Philip G. Haydon
Glia, 2004, Volume 47, Number 3, Page 233
Cornelia Ruedig and Ralf Dringen
Journal of Neuroscience Research, 2004, Volume 75, Number 4, Page 536

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