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Biological Chemistry

Editor-in-Chief: Brüne, Bernhard

Editorial Board: Buchner, Johannes / Lei, Ming / Ludwig, Stephan / Thomas, Douglas D. / Turk, Boris / Wittinghofer, Alfred


IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 3.014
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 3.162

CiteScore 2018: 3.09

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 1.482
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.820

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1437-4315
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Pathogenetic interplay between osmotic and oxidative stress: the hepatic encephalopathy paradigm

Freimut Schliess
  • Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectiology, Heinrich Heine University, D-40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Boris Görg
  • Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectiology, Heinrich Heine University, D-40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Dieter Häussinger
  • Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectiology, Heinrich Heine University, D-40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2006-11-02 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/BC.2006.171

Abstract

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) defines a primary gliopathy associated with acute and chronic liver disease. Astrocyte swelling triggered by ammonia in synergism with different precipitating factors, including hyponatremia, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, glutamate and ligands of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), is an early pathogenetic event in HE. On the other hand, reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) including nitric oxide are considered to play a major role in HE. There is growing evidence that osmotic and oxidative stresses are closely interrelated. Astrocyte swelling produces RNOS and vice versa. Based on recent investigations, this review proposes a working model that integrates the pathogenetic action of osmotic and oxidative stresses in HE. Under participation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, Ca2+, the PBR and organic osmolyte depletion, astrocyte swelling and RNOS production may constitute an autoamplificatory signaling loop that integrates at least some of the signals released by HE-precipitating factors.

Keywords: astrocytes; glutamate; glutamine synthetase; hepatic encephalopathy; liver; nitric oxide; NMDA receptor

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Published Online: 2006-11-02

Published in Print: 2006-10-01


Citation Information: Biological Chemistry, Volume 387, Issue 10/11, Pages 1363–1370, ISSN (Online) 1437-4315, ISSN (Print) 1431-6730, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/BC.2006.171.

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