Editor-in-Chief: Brüne, Bernhard
Editorial Board: Buchner, Johannes / Lei, Ming / Ludwig, Stephan / Thomas, Douglas D. / Turk, Boris / Wittinghofer, Alfred
IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 3.014
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 3.162
CiteScore 2018: 3.09
SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 1.482
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.820
Pathogenetic interplay between osmotic and oxidative stress: the hepatic encephalopathy paradigm
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) defines a primary gliopathy associated with acute and chronic liver disease. Astrocyte swelling triggered by ammonia in synergism with different precipitating factors, including hyponatremia, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, glutamate and ligands of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), is an early pathogenetic event in HE. On the other hand, reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) including nitric oxide are considered to play a major role in HE. There is growing evidence that osmotic and oxidative stresses are closely interrelated. Astrocyte swelling produces RNOS and vice versa. Based on recent investigations, this review proposes a working model that integrates the pathogenetic action of osmotic and oxidative stresses in HE. Under participation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, Ca2+, the PBR and organic osmolyte depletion, astrocyte swelling and RNOS production may constitute an autoamplificatory signaling loop that integrates at least some of the signals released by HE-precipitating factors.
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