Editor-in-Chief: Brüne, Bernhard
Editorial Board: Buchner, Johannes / Lei, Ming / Ludwig, Stephan / Thomas, Douglas D. / Turk, Boris / Wittinghofer, Alfred
IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 3.014
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 3.162
CiteScore 2018: 3.09
SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 1.482
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.820
Processive proteolysis by γ-secretase and the mechanism of Alzheimer’s disease
γ-Secretase is a membrane-embedded protease complex with presenilin as the catalytic component. Cleavage within the transmembrane domain of the amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) by γ-secretase produces the C-terminus of the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), a proteolytic product prone to aggregation and strongly linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Presenilin mutations are associated with early-onset AD, but their pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. One hypothesis is that these mutations cause AD through a toxic gain of function, changing γ-secretase activity to increase the proportion of 42-residue Aβ over the more soluble 40-residue form. A competing hypothesis is that the mutations cause AD through a loss of function, by reducing γ-secretase activity. However, γ-secretase apparently has two types of activities, an endoproteolytic function that first cuts APP to generate a 48/49-residue form of Aβ, and a carboxypeptidase activity that processively trims these longer Aβ intermediates approximately every three residues to form shorter, secreted forms. Recent studies suggest a resolution of the gain-of-function vs. loss-of-function debate: presenilin mutations may increase the proportion of longer, more aggregation-prone Aβ by specifically decreasing the trimming activity of γ-secretase. That is, the reduction of this particular proteolytic function of presenilin, not its endoproteolytic activity, may lead to the neurotoxic gain of function.
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