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Biological Chemistry

Editor-in-Chief: Brüne, Bernhard

Editorial Board: Buchner, Johannes / Lei, Ming / Ludwig, Stephan / Thomas, Douglas D. / Turk, Boris / Wittinghofer, Alfred


IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 3.014
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 3.162

CiteScore 2018: 3.09

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 1.482
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.820

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1437-4315
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Volume 393, Issue 9

Issues

Processive proteolysis by γ-secretase and the mechanism of Alzheimer’s disease

Michael S. Wolfe
  • Corresponding author
  • Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, H.I.M. 754, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Abstract

γ-Secretase is a membrane-embedded protease complex with presenilin as the catalytic component. Cleavage within the transmembrane domain of the amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) by γ-secretase produces the C-terminus of the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), a proteolytic product prone to aggregation and strongly linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Presenilin mutations are associated with early-onset AD, but their pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. One hypothesis is that these mutations cause AD through a toxic gain of function, changing γ-secretase activity to increase the proportion of 42-residue Aβ over the more soluble 40-residue form. A competing hypothesis is that the mutations cause AD through a loss of function, by reducing γ-secretase activity. However, γ-secretase apparently has two types of activities, an endoproteolytic function that first cuts APP to generate a 48/49-residue form of Aβ, and a carboxypeptidase activity that processively trims these longer Aβ intermediates approximately every three residues to form shorter, secreted forms. Recent studies suggest a resolution of the gain-of-function vs. loss-of-function debate: presenilin mutations may increase the proportion of longer, more aggregation-prone Aβ by specifically decreasing the trimming activity of γ-secretase. That is, the reduction of this particular proteolytic function of presenilin, not its endoproteolytic activity, may lead to the neurotoxic gain of function.

Keywords: amyloid; carboxypeptidase; endoproteolysis; presenilin; protease

About the article

Received: 2012-02-28

Accepted: 2012-04-14

Published in Print: 2012-09-01


Citation Information: , Volume 393, Issue 9, Pages 899–905, ISSN (Online) 1437-4315, ISSN (Print) 1431-6730, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hsz-2012-0140.

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