Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Jürges, Hendrik

The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy

Editor-in-Chief: Ludwig, Sandra / Schmitz, Hendrik

Ed. by Barigozzi, Francesca / Brunner, Johann / Fleck, Robert / Mastrobuoni, Giovanni / Mendola, Mariapia / Requate, Till / de Vries, Frans / Wenzel, Tobias

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.306
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.492

CiteScore 2018: 0.54

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.356
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.394

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 19, Issue 1


Volume 6 (2006)

Volume 4 (2004)

Volume 2 (2002)

Volume 1 (2001)

Inter-Ethnic Friendship and Hostility between Roma and non-Roma Students in Hungary: The Role of Exposure and Academic Achievement

Tamás HajduORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9533-7727 / Gábor Kertesi
  • Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Tóth Kálmán u. 4., 1097 Budapest, Hungary
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Gábor Kézdi
  • Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Tóth Kálmán u. 4., 1097 Budapest, Hungary
  • Survey Research Center, University of Michigan, HRS-ISR, 426 Thompson Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2018-10-06 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bejeap-2017-0289


This study examines friendship and hostility relations between Roma students and the ethnically homogeneous non-Roma majority in Hungarian schools. Using data on friendship and hostility relations of 15-year-old students from 82 schools, the study focuses on the interaction between exposure to the other ethnic group and academic achievement of Roma students. High-achieving Roma students are shown to have significantly more friends and fewer adversaries than low-achieving ones, due to better inter-ethnic relations while having similar within-ethnic group relations. As a result, higher exposure to Roma students translates to more friendship and less hostility from non-Roma students in environments where more of the Roma students have higher achievement. Therefore, policies helping the achievement of Roma students can have immediate as well as long-term positive effects. Simulations suggest that a mixed policy of desegregation and closing the achievement gap may best foster positive inter-ethnic relations.

This article offers supplementary material which is provided at the end of the article.

Keywords: social interactions; minority students; academic achievement; class composition

JEL Classification: J15; I24


  • Allport, Gordon W. 1954. The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar

  • Angrist, Joshua D. 2014. “The Perils of Peer Effects.” Labour Economics 30 (October): 98–108. doi:.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Bernát, Anikó, Attila Juhász, Péter Krekó, and Csaba Molnár. 2013. “The Roots of Radicalism and Anti-Roma Attitudes on the Far Right.” TARKI Working paper.Google Scholar

  • Bifulco, Robert, Jason M. Fletcher, and Stephen L. Ross. 2011. “The Effect of Classmate Characteristics on Post-Secondary Outcomes: Evidence from the Add Health.” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 3 (1): 25–53. doi:.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Boda, Zsófia, and Bálint Néray. 2015. “Inter-Ethnic Friendship and Negative Ties in Secondary School.” Social Networks 43: 57–72. doi:CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Carrell, Scott E., Mark Hoekstra, and James E. West. 2015. “The Impact of Intergroup Contact on Racial Attitudes and Revealed Preferences.” Working Paper 20940. National Bureau of Economic Research. doi:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Carrell, Scott E., Bruce I. Sacerdote, and James E. West. 2013. “From Natural Variation to Optimal Policy? the Importance of Endogenous Peer Group Formation.” Econometrica 81 (3): 855–82. doi:.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Currarini, Sergio, Matthew O. Jackson, and Paolo Pin. 2010. “Identifying the Roles of Race-Based Choice and Chance in High School Friendship Network Formation.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107 (11): 4857–61. doi:.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Echenique, Federico, and Roland G. Fryer. 2007. “A Measure of Segregation Based on Social Interactions.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 122 (2): 441–85. doi:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Flashman, Jennifer. 2012. “Different Preferences or Different Opportunities? Explaining Race Differentials in the Academic Achievement of Friends.” Social Science Research 41 (4): 888–903. doi:.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Fletcher, Jason M., Stephen L. Ross, and Yuxiu Zhang. 2013. “The Determinants and Consequences of Friendship Composition.” Working Paper 19215. National Bureau of Economic Research. doi:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fordham, Signithia, and John U. Ogbu. 1986. “Black Students’ School Success: Coping with the ‘Burden of “Acting White.”’.” The Urban Review 18 (3): 176–206. doi:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • FRA, and UNDP. 2012. The Situation of Roma in 11 EU Member States. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.Google Scholar

  • Fryer, Roland G., and Paul Torelli. 2010. “An Empirical Analysis of ‘Acting White.’.” Journal of Public Economics 94 (5): 380–96. doi:.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E., and Stacey N. Doan. 2010. “The Social Costs of Academic Success across Ethnic Groups.” Child Development 81 (6): 1696–713. doi:.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Hajdu, Tamás, Gábor Kertesi, and Gábor Kézdi. 2014. “Roma Fiatalok a Középiskolában. Beszámoló a TÁRKI Életpálya-Felmérésének 2006 És 2012 Közötti Hullámaiból [Roma Students in Secondary Schools. Report from the Hungarian Life Course Survey of TARKI, Waves 2006-12].” In Társadalmi Riport [Social Report], edited by T. Kolosi and I.G. Tóth, 265–302. Budapest: TÁRKI.Google Scholar

  • Hiller, Timo. 2017. “Friends and Enemies: A Model of Signed Network Formation.” Theoretical Economics 12 (3): 1057–87. doi:.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Huitsing, Gijs, Marijtje A. J. van Duijn, Tom A. B. Snijders, Peng Wang, Miia Sainio, Christina Salmivalli, and René Veenstra. 2012. “Univariate and Multivariate Models of Positive and Negative Networks: Liking, Disliking, and Bully–Victim Relationships.” Social Networks 34 (4): 645–57. doi:.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Jackson, Matthew O. 2014. “Networks in the Understanding of Economic Behaviors.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 28 (4): 3–22. doi:.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Kemény, István. 2004. “A Magyarországi Cigány Népesség Demográfiája [The Demography of the Hungarian Gypsy Population].” Demográfia 47 (3–4): 335–46.Google Scholar

  • Kemény, István, and Béla Janky. 2006. “Roma Population of Hungary 1971–2003.” In Roma of Hungary, edited by I. Kemény, 70–225. East European Monographs. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar

  • Kertesi, Gábor, and Gábor Kézdi. 2011a. “Roma Employment in Hungary after the Post-Communist Transition.” Economics of Transition 19 (3): 563–610. doi:.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Kertesi, Gábor, and Gábor Kézdi. 2011b. “The Roma/Non-Roma Test Score Gap in Hungary.” The American Economic Review 101 (3): 519–25. doi:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kertesi, Gábor, and Gábor Kézdi. 2016. “On the Test Score Gap between Roma and Non-Roma Students in Hungary and Its Potential Causes.” Economics of Transition 24 (1): 135–62. doi:.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Kézdi, Gábor, and Éva Surányi. 2009. A Successful School Integration Program: An Evaluation of the Hungarian National Governments School Integration Program, 2005–2007. Budapest: Roma Education Fund.Google Scholar

  • Kisfalusi, Dorottya. 2016. “The Quality of Inter- and Intra-Ethnic Friendships among Roma and Non-Roma Students in Hungary.” Corvinus Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 7 (1): 3–26.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Lőrincz, László. 2016. “Interethnic Dating Preferences of Roma and Non-Roma Secondary School Students.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 42 (13): 2244–62. doi:.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Patacchini, Eleonora, and Yves Zenou. 2016. “Racial Identity and Education in Social Networks.” Social Networks 44: 85–94. doi:CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Pettigrew, Thomas F. 1998. “Intergroup Contact Theory.” Annual Review of Psychology 49 (1): 65–85. doi:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Pettigrew, Thomas F., and Linda R. Tropp. 2006. “A Meta-Analytic Test of Intergroup Contact Theory.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 90 (5): 751–83. doi:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Simonovits, Gábor, and Gábor Kézdi. 2016. “Economic Hardship Triggers Identification with Disadvantaged Minorities.” The Journal of Politics 78 (3): 882–92. doi:.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Smith, Sanne, Ineke Maas, and Frank van Tubergen. 2014. “Ethnic Ingroup Friendships in Schools: Testing the by-Product Hypothesis in England, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden.” Social Networks 39: 33–45. doi:CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Székelyi, Mária, György Csepeli, and Antal Örkény. 2001. “Attitudes and Stereotypes of Hungarian Police toward Gypsies.” In Ethnic Minorities and Interethnic Relations in Context, edited by P. Karen and A. Örkény, 217–28. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar

  • Váradi, Luca. 2014. Youths Trapped in Prejudice: Hungarian AdolescentsAttitudes Towards the Roma. Wiesbaden: Springer Science & Business.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2018-10-06

Our research was supported by the Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office (NKFI-101409 project, ‘The role of parenting and networks in human capital formation’). Gábor Kertesi gratefully acknowledges support from the CEU Institute for Advanced Study. The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Citation Information: The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, Volume 19, Issue 1, 20170289, ISSN (Online) 1935-1682, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bejeap-2017-0289.

Export Citation

© 2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Supplementary Article Materials

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in