Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

New Journal !

Biofuels Engineering

1 Issue per year

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2084-7181
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Combustion Characteristics and Laminar Flame Speed of Premixed Ethanol-Air Mixtures with Laser-Induced Spark Ignition

Cangsu Xu / Anhao Zhong / Chongming Wang
  • Corresponding author
  • School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Automotive Engineering, Coventry University, Coventry, CV1 5FB, UK
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Chaozhao Jiang / Xiaolu Li / Kangquan Zhou / Yuqi Huang
Published Online: 2017-12-29 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bfuel-2017-0005

Abstract

Laser-induced spark-ignition (LISI) has an advanced ignition technique with a few benefits over spark ignition. In this study, flame morphology, laminar flame characteristics and combustion characteristics of premixed anhydrous ethanol and air mixtures were investigated using LISI generated by a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (wavelength: 1064 nm). Experiments were conducted in a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC) at the initial condition of T0=358 K and P0=0.1 MPa, respectively, and with equivalence ratios (ɸ) of 0.6-1.6. Flame images were recorded by using the high-speed Schlieren photography technique, and the in-vessel pressure was recorded using a piezoelectric pressure transducer. Tests were also carried out with spark ignition, and the results were used as a reference. It has been found that the laminar flame speed of ethanol-air mixtures with LISI was comparable with those of spark ignition, proving that ignition methods have no influence on laminar flame speed which is an inherent characteristic of a fuel-air mixture. The peak laminar burning velocities for LISI and spark ignition with nonlinear extrapolation methods were approximately 50 cm/s at ɸ=1.1. However, LISI was able to ignite leaner mixtures than spark ignition. The maximum pressure rise rate of LISI was consistently higher than that of spark ignition at all tested ɸ, although the maximum pressure was similar for LISI and spark ignition. The initial combustion duration and main combustion duration reached the minimum at ɸ=1.1.

Keywords : Laser-induced spark-ignition; Laminar flame speed; Pressure rise rate; Ethanol

References

  • [1] M.H. Morsy, Review and recent developments of laser ignition for internal combustion engines applications, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16 (2012) 4849-4875.Google Scholar

  • [2] Z. Kuang, E. Lyon, H. Cheng, V. Page, T. Shenton, G. Dearden, Multi-location laser ignition using a spatial light modulator towards improving automotive gasoline engine performance, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 90 (2017) 275-283.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [3] M. Weinrotter, H. Kopecek, M. Tesch, E. Wintner, M. Lackner, F. Winter, Laser ignition of ultra-lean methane/hydrogen/air mixtures at high temperature and pressure, Experimental thermal and fluid science, 29 (2005) 569-577.Google Scholar

  • [4] D. Bradley, C. Sheppard, I. Suardjaja, R. Woolley, Fundamentals of high-energy spark ignition with lasers, Combustion and Flame, 138 (2004) 55-77.Google Scholar

  • [5] D.K. Srivastava, M. Weinrotter, K. Iskra, A.K. Agarwal, E. Wintner, Characterisation of laser ignition in hydrogen-air mixtures in a combustion bomb, international journal of hydrogen energy, 34 (2009) 2475-2482.Google Scholar

  • [6] H. Kopecek, S. Charareh, M. Lackner, C. Forsich , F. Winter, J. Klausner, et al. Laser ignition of methane-air mixtures at high pressures and diagnostics. ASME 2003 Internal Combustion Engine Division Spring Technical Conference: American Society of Mechanical Engineers; 2003;147-54.Google Scholar

  • [7] Y. Jiang, X. Bao, A. Sahu, X. Ma, H. Xu, A. Thong, Flame Kernel Growth and Propagation in an Optical Direct Injection Engine Using Laser Ignition, SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-2243, 2017, Google Scholar

  • [8] Q. Li,W. Zhang,W. Jin, Y. Xie, Z. Huang, Laminar flame characteristics and kinetic modeling study of methanol-isooctane blends at elevated temperatures, Fuel, 184 (2016) 836-845.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [9] C., Wang, R. Daniel, X. Ma, Comparison of Gasoline (ULG), 2, 5-Dimethylfuran (DMF) and Bio-Ethanol in a DISI Miller Cycle with Late Inlet Valve Closing Time. SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1147, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-1147.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [10] C. Wang, S. Zeraati-Rezaei, L. Xiang, H. Xu, Ethanol blends in spark ignition engines: RON, octane-added value, cooling effect, compression ratio, and potential engine eflciency gain, Applied Energy, 191 (2017) 603-619.Google Scholar

  • [11] C. Wang, A. Janssen, A. Prakash, R. Cracknell, H. Xu, Splash blended ethanol in a spark ignition engine - Effect of RON, octane sensitivity and charge cooling, Fuel, 196 (2017) 21-31.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [12] T. Badawy, J.Williamson, H. Xu, Laminar burning characteristics of ethyl propionate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl acetate, gasoline and ethanol fuels, Fuel, 183 (2016) 627-640.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [13] P. Dirrenberger, P.-A. Glaude, R. Bounaceur, H. Le Gall, A.P. da Cruz, A. Konnov, F. Battin-Leclerc, Laminar burning velocity of gasolines with addition of ethanol, Fuel, 115 (2014) 162-169.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [14] C.-s. Xu, D.-h. Fang, Q.-y. Luo, J. Ma, Y. Xie, X. Zheng, Characterization of gasoline combustion with laser and spark ignition, Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A, 16 (2015) 830-838.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [15] C. Xu, D. Fang, Q. Luo, J. Ma, Y. Xie, A comparative study of laser ignition and spark ignition with gasoline-air mixtures, Optics & Laser Technology, 64 (2014) 343-351.Google Scholar

  • [16] C. Xu, Y. Hu, X. Li, X. Zhou, A. Zhong, Comparative experimental study of ethanol-air premixed laminar combustion characteristics by laser induced spark and electric spark ignition, Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, (2015) 1-6.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [17] M. Frankel, G. Sivashinsky, On effects due to thermal expansion and Lewis number in spherical flame propagation, Combustion science and technology, 31 (1983) 131-138.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [18] A.P. Kelley, G. Jomaas, C.K. Law, Critical radius for sustained propagation of spark-ignited spherical flames, Combustion and Flame, 156 (2009) 1006-1013.Google Scholar

  • [19] X. Ma, C. Jiang, H. Xu, H. Ding, S. Shuai, Laminar burning characteristics of 2-methylfuran and isooctane blend fuels, Fuel, 116 (2014) 281-291.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [20] X.S. Wu, Z.H. Huang, C. Jin, X.G. Wang, B. Zheng, Y.J. Zhang, L.X. Wei, Measurements of Laminar Burning Velocities and Markstein Lengths of 2,5-Dimethylfuran-Air-Diluent Premixed Flames, Energy & Fuels, 23 (2009) 4355-4362.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [21] G.M. Rassweiler, L. Withrow, Motion pictures of engine flames correlated with pressure cards, in, SAE Technical Paper, 1938.Google Scholar

  • [22] J.B. Heywood, Internal combustion engine fundamentals, McGraw-Hill: New York, 1989.Google Scholar

  • [23] C. Law, C. Sung, Structure, aerodynamics, and geometry of premixed flamelets, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 26 (2000) 459-505.Google Scholar

  • [24] M. Matalon, Intrinsic flame instabilities in premixed and nonpremixed combustion, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 39 (2007) 163-191.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [25] X.S.Wu, Q.Q. Li, J. Fu, C.L. Tang, Z.H. Huang, R. Daniel, G.H. Tian, H.M. Xu, Laminar burning characteristics of 2,5-dimethylfuran and iso-octane blend at elevated temperatures and pressures, Fuel, 95 (2012) 234-240.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [26] G.M. Rassweiler, L. Withrow, Motion pictures of engine flames correlated with pressure cards. SAE Technical Paper 380139, 1938, https://doi.org/10.4271/380139.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [27] Bechtold J, M.Matalon, The dependence of the Markstein length on stoichiometry, Combustion and flame, 127 (2001) 1906-1913.Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2017-11-30

Accepted: 2017-12-27

Published Online: 2017-12-29


Citation Information: Biofuels Engineering, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 63–72, ISSN (Online) 2084-7181, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bfuel-2017-0005.

Export Citation

© 2018. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in