Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Biomonitoring

1 Issue per year


Emerging Science

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2300-4606
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Bio-effects Monitoring of Workers in the Cotton Industry

Abdul Wali Khan
  • Corresponding author
  • Institute of Environmental Hygiene, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria; Federal Government Polyclinic (PGMI), Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Armen Nersesyan
  • Corresponding author
  • Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2014-07-04 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/bimo-2014-0004

Abstract

There is still unprotected and continuous exposure to cotton dusts, endotoxins, chemicals due to chemical and mechanical processes and to ergonomic hazards in the cotton industry of Pakistan, resulting in different types of public health problems in cotton workers. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of byssinosis and other public health problems in cotton factories of Faisalabad; to measure cotton dusts and endotoxins in different cotton factories and to correlate their effects on lungs via Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) and to determine cytotoxic and genotoxic cellular effects in buccal cells due to long term exposure to cotton dusts and endotoxins in exposed cotton workers against a controlled/non-exposed group. Public health problems and occupational safety will be assessed via a structured check list. A structured questionnaire will be administered to 800 cotton workers to determine the prevalence of byssinosis and other health problems. PFTs will be performed on selected exposed cotton workers. Cotton dusts and endotoxins will be measured in different sections of different cotton factories. Buccal cells will be collected from 50 exposed cotton weavers and also from similar numbered matched controlled/non-exposed group. The organic cotton dusts contain endotoxin which is associated with acute and chronic inflammation of the respiratory tract, resulting in decline in lung function and in a clinical condition called “byssinosis”, organic dust toxic syndrome and chronic airway obstruction. As the exposure leads to inflammation, so there may be cytotoxicity in buccal cells.

Keywords : Human buccal cells; occupational exposures; cotton factories; cytotoxic and genotoxic cellular changes

References

  • [1] Torres CH, Varona ME, Lancheros A, Patino RI, Groot H. [DNA damage assessment and biological monitoring of occupational exposure to organic solvents, 2006]. Biomedica: revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud. 2008 Mar;28(1):126-38. PubMed PMID: 18645668. Evaluacion del dano en el ADN y vigilancia biologica de la exposicion laboral a solventes organicos, 2006. Google Scholar

  • [2] Forstater M. Implications of the global financial and economic crisis on the textile and clothing sector. International Labour Organization. International Labour Office, Geneva: 2009. Google Scholar

  • [3] Shackter EN. Respiratory effects and other disease pattern in the textile industry [cited 2013 February 6]. Available from: http://www.ilo.org/safework_bookshelf/ english?content&nd=857170174. Google Scholar

  • [4] Singh Z, Chadha P. Genotoxic effects of fiber dust among textile industry workers. Journal of Environmental Science and Sustainability (JESS). 2013;1(3):81-4. Google Scholar

  • [5] Shaikh MA. Environmental issues related with textile sector. Pakistan Textile Journal 2009;10:36-40. Google Scholar

  • [6] Editorial, Pakistan textile journal. Faisalabad: Pakistan Textile Journal. October, 2012;C:Editorial’s page 7. Google Scholar

  • [7] Siddique R, Shaheen I, Akbar W, Malik M. The ills faced by the sector and its contribution towards economic development. In: Report FS, editor. Islamabad No date. p. 14. Google Scholar

  • [8] Khan SA, Saadia A. Pulmonary function studies in Pakistani cotton ginners. Pak J Physiol. 2006;2(1):22-5. Google Scholar

  • [9] Anjum A, Mann AA, Anjum MA. Health concerns among workers in weaving industry: a case study of Tehsil Faisalabad, Pakistan. J Agric Soc Sci. 2009;5(3):106-8. Google Scholar

  • [10] Nafees AA, Fatmi Z, Kadir MM, Sathiakumar N. Pattern and predictors for respiratory illnesses and symptoms and lung function among textile workers in Karachi, Pakistan. Occupational and environmental medicine. 2013 Feb;70(2):99-107. PubMed PMID: 23155188. PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [11] Nakladayloya M. byssinosis. Acta Univ Palacki Olomuc Fac Med. 2000;143:43-6. Google Scholar

  • [12] Murlidhar V, Murlidhar VJ, Kanhere V. Byssinosis in a Bombay textile mill. The National medical journal of India. 1995 Sep-Oct;8(5):204-7. PubMed PMID: 7549849. Google Scholar

  • [13] Wang XR, Zhang HX, Sun BX, Dai HL, Hang JQ, Eisen EA, et al. A 20-year follow-up study on chronic respiratory effects of exposure to cotton dust. The European respiratory journal. 2005 Nov;26(5):881-6. PubMed PMID: 16264050. Google Scholar

  • [14] Mishra AK, Rotti SB, Sahai A, Madanmohan, Narayan KA. Byssinosis among male textile workers in Pondicherry: a case-control study. The National medical journal of India. 2003 Mar-Apr;16(2):70-3. PubMed PMID: 12816184. Google Scholar

  • [15] Schilling RS. Epidemiological Studies of Chronic Respiratory Disease among Cotton Operatives. The Yale journal of biology and medicine. 1964 Aug;37:55-74. PubMed PMID: 14197610. PubMed Central PMCID: 2604606. Google Scholar

  • [16] Memon I, Panhwar A, Rohra DK, Azam SI, Khan N. Prevalence of byssinosis in spinning and textile workers of Karachi, Pakistan. Archives of environmental & occupational health. 2008 Fall;63(3):137-42. PubMed PMID: 18980877. PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [17] Cavagna G, Foa V, Vigliani EC. Effects in man and rabbits of inhalation of cotton dust or extracts and purified endotoxins. British journal of industrial medicine. 1969 Oct;26(4):314-21. PubMed PMID: 4899667. PubMed Central PMCID: 1008990. Google Scholar

  • [18] Dube KJ, Ingale LT, Ingale ST. Hearing impairment among workers exposed to excessive levels of noise in ginning industries. Noise & health. 2011 Sep-Oct;13(54):348-55. PubMed PMID: 21959115. PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [19] Shojaei AH. Buccal mucosa as a route for systemic drug delivery: a review. Journal of pharmacy & pharmaceutical sciences : a publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Societe canadienne des sciences pharmaceutiques. 1998 Jan-Apr;1(1):15-30. PubMed PMID: 10942969. Google Scholar

  • [20] Squier CA, Kremer MJ. Biology of oral mucosa and esophagus. Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monographs. 2001 (29):7-15. PubMed PMID: 11694559. Google Scholar

  • [21] Spivack SD, Hurteau GJ, Jain R, Kumar SV, Aldous KM, Gierthy JF, et al. Gene-environment interaction signatures by quantitative mRNA profiling in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells. Cancer research. 2004 Sep 15;64(18):6805-13. PubMed PMID: 15375000. Google Scholar

  • [22] Vondracek M, Xi Z, Larsson P, Baker V, Mace K, Pfeifer A, et al. Cytochrome P450 expression and related metabolism in human buccal mucosa. Carcinogenesis. 2001 Mar;22(3):481-8. PubMed PMID: 11238190. Google Scholar

  • [23] Cairns J. Mutation selection and the natural history of cancer. Nature. 1975 May 15;255(5505):197-200. PubMed PMID: 1143315. Google Scholar

  • [24] Bonassi S, Coskun E, Ceppi M, Lando C, Bolognesi C, Burgaz S, et al. The HUman MicroNucleus project on eXfoLiated buccal cells (HUMN(XL)): the role of life-style, host factors, occupational exposures, health status, and assay protocol. Mutat Res. 2011 Nov-Dec;728(3):88-97. PubMed PMID: 21763453. Google Scholar

  • [25] Bonassi S, Znaor A, Ceppi M, Lando C, Chang WP, Holland N, et al. An increased micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes predicts the risk of cancer in humans. Carcinogenesis. 2007 Mar;28(3):625-31. PubMed PMID: 16973674. Google Scholar

  • [26] Fenech M, Morley AA. Measurement of micronuclei in lymphocytes. Mutat Res. 1985 Feb-Apr;147(1-2):29-36. PubMed PMID: 3974610. Google Scholar

  • [27] Pincu M, Bass D, Norman A. An improved micronuclear assay in lymphocytes. Mutat Res. 1984 Feb;139(2):61-5. PubMed PMID: 6198586. Google Scholar

  • [28] Tolbert PE, Shy CM, Allen JW. Micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies in buccal smears: methods development. Mutat Res. 1992 Feb;271(1):69-77. PubMed PMID: 1371831. Google Scholar

  • [29] Stich HF, San RH, Rosin MP. Adaptation of the DNA-repair and micronucleus tests to human cell suspensions and exfoliated cells. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1983;407:93-105. PubMed PMID: 6349490. Google Scholar

  • [30] Dhillon VS, Thomas P, Fenech M. Comparison of DNA damage and repair following radiation challenge in buccal cells and lymphocytes using single-cell gel electrophoresis. International journal of radiation biology. 2004 Jul;80(7):517-28. PubMed PMID: 15360090. Google Scholar

  • [31] Lenters V, Basinas I, Beane-Freeman L, Boffetta P, Checkoway H, Coggon D, et al. Endotoxin exposure and lung cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature on agriculture and cotton textile workers. Cancer causes & control : CCC. 2010 Apr;21(4):523-55. PubMed PMID: 20012774. PubMed Central PMCID: 2839468. Google Scholar

  • [32] Checkoway H, Ray RM, Lundin JI, Astrakianakis G, Seixas NS, Camp JE, et al. Lung cancer and occupational exposures other than cotton dust and endotoxin among women textile workers in Shanghai, China. Occupational and environmental medicine. 2011 Jun;68(6):425-9. PubMed PMID: 21131604. PubMed Central PMCID: 3071898. Google Scholar

  • [33] Holland N, Bolognesi C, Kirsch-Volders M, Bonassi S, Zeiger E, Knasmueller S, et al. The micronucleus assay in human buccal cells as a tool for biomonitoring DNA damage: the HUMN project perspective on current status and knowledge gaps. Mutat Res. 2008 Jul-Aug;659(1-2):93-108. PubMed PMID: 18514568. Google Scholar

  • [34] The HUman MicroNucleus Project 1997 [cited 2014 04th January]. Available from: http://ehs.sph.berkeley.edu/holland/ humn/. Google Scholar

  • [35] Thomas P, Holland N, Bolognesi C, Kirsch-Volders M, Bonassi S, Zeiger E, et al. Buccal micronucleus cytome assay. Nat Protoc. 2009;4(6):825-37. PubMed PMID: 19444240. Google Scholar

  • [36] Salama SA, Serrana M, Au WW. Biomonitoring using accessible human cells for exposure and health risk assessment. Mutat Res. 1999 Jan;436(1):99-112. PubMed PMID: 9878700. Google Scholar

  • [37] Holland N. Human biomonitoring using micronucleus assay in blood and exfoliated cells: IOS Press; 2003. Google Scholar

  • [38] Faisalabad Regional Profile [Internet]. [cited 20th March, 2013]. Available from: http://www.fpcci.com.pk/reports/ Faisalabad%20Regional%20Profile.pdf. Google Scholar

  • [39] Singh YK. Fundamental of research methodology and statistics. New Delhi, India: New Age International Private Limited Publishers; 2006. Google Scholar

  • [40] Paba E, Tranfo G, Corsetti F, Marcelloni AM, Iavicoli S. Indoor exposure to airborne endotoxin: a review of the literature on sampling and analysis methods. Industrial health. 2013;51(3):237-55. PubMed PMID: 23385433. Google Scholar

  • [41] Reynolds SJ, Milton DK, Heederik D, Thorne PS, Donham KJ, Croteau EA, et al. Interlaboratory evaluation of endotoxin analyses in agricultural dusts--comparison of LAL assay and mass spectrometry. Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM. 2005 Dec;7(12):1371-7. PubMed PMID: 16307099. Google Scholar

  • [42] Albertini RJ, Anderson D, Douglas GR, Hagmar L, Hemminki K, Merlo F, et al. IPCS guidelines for the monitoring of genotoxic effects of carcinogens in humans. International Programme on Chemical Safety. Mutat Res. 2000 Aug;463(2):111-72. PubMed PMID: 10913908. Google Scholar

  • [43] Fenech M, Aitken C, Rinaldi J. Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine status and DNA damage in young Australian adults. Carcinogenesis. 1998 Jul;19(7):1163-71. PubMed PMID: 9683174. Google Scholar

  • [44] Titenko-Holland N, Jacob RA, Shang N, Balaraman A, Smith MT. Micronuclei in lymphocytes and exfoliated buccal cells of postmenopausal women with dietary changes in folate. Mutat Res. 1998 Sep 11;417(2-3):101-14. PubMed PMID: 9733936. Google Scholar

  • [45] Ceppi M, Biasotti B, Fenech M, Bonassi S. Human population studies with the exfoliated buccal micronucleus assay: statistical and epidemiological issues. Mutat Res. 2010 Jul-Sep;705(1):11-9. PubMed PMID: 19932192. Google Scholar

  • [46] Nersesyan A, Kundi M, Atefie K, Schulte-Hermann R, Knasmuller S. Effect of staining procedures on the results of micronucleus assays with exfoliated oral mucosa cells. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2006 Oct;15(10):1835-40. PubMed PMID: 17035390. Google Scholar

  • [47] Beck GJ, Schachter EN, Maunder LR, Schilling RS. A prospective study of chronic lung disease in cotton textile workers. Ann Intern Med. 1982 Nov;97(5):645-51. PubMed PMID: 7137730. Google Scholar

  • [48] Dube KJ, Ingale LT, Ingle ST. Respiratory impairment in cotton-ginning workers exposed to cotton dust. International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics : JOSE. 2013;19(4):551-60. PubMed PMID: 24321634. Google Scholar

  • [49] Chatti S, Maoua M, Rhif H, Dahmoul M, Abbassi A, Mlaouah AJ, et al. [Occupational asthma in the Tunisian central region: etiologies and professional status]. Revue de pneumologie clinique. 2011 Oct;67(5):281-8. PubMed PMID: 22017947. L’asthme professionnel dans la region du centre tunisien : etiologies et devenir professionnel. Google Scholar

  • [50] Sangeetha BM, Rajeswari M, Atharsha S, Saranyaa K, Ramya S. Cotton dust level in textile industries and its impact on human. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. April, 2013;3(4):1-6. Google Scholar

  • [51] Whitelock DP, Armijo C, Gamble G, Hughs S. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions—project plan. ENGINEERING AND GINNING. Journal of Cotton Science. 2012;16:105-16. Google Scholar

  • [52] PIMA COUNTY (Department of Environmental Quality). What is particulate matter? [Internet]. United States Environmental Protection Agency. [cited 10th April, 2014]. Available from: http://www.airinfonow.org/html/ed_particulate.html. Google Scholar

  • [53] Kennedy SM, Christiani DC, Eisen EA, Wegman DH, Greaves IA, Olenchock SA, et al. Cotton dust and endotoxin exposureresponse relationships in cotton textile workers. The American review of respiratory disease. 1987 Jan;135(1):194-200. PubMed PMID: 3800146. Google Scholar

  • [54] Rylander R, Soerensen S, Goto H, Yuasa K, Tanaka S. The importance of endotoxin and glucan for symptoms in sick buildings. Present and Future of Indoor Air Quality (Bieva CJ, Courtois Y, Govaerts M, eds) Amsterdam: Elsevier Science. 1989:219-26. Google Scholar

  • [55] Merchant JA, Lumsden JC, Kilburn KH, O’Fallon WM, Ujda JR, Germino VH, Jr., et al. Dose response studies in cotton textile workers. J Occup Med. 1973 Mar;15(3):222-30. PubMed PMID: 4693165. Google Scholar

  • [56] Smid T, Heederik D, Houba R, Quanjer PH. Dust- and endotoxin-related respiratory effects in the animal feed industry. The American review of respiratory disease. 1992 Dec;146(6):1474-9. PubMed PMID: 1456563. Google Scholar

  • [57] Haglind P, Rylander R. Exposure to cotton dust in an experimental cardroom. British journal of industrial medicine. 1984;41(3):340-5. Google Scholar

  • [58] Campbell N, Reece J, Urry L, Cain M, Wasserman S, Minorsky P, et al. Biology. 8: e uppl. Pearson, San Francisco; 2008. Google Scholar

  • [59] Hodgson JC. Endotoxin and mammalian host responses during experimental disease. J Comp Pathol. 2006 Nov;135(4):157-75. PubMed PMID: 17101336. Google Scholar

  • [60] Michel O, Nagy AM, Schroeven M, Duchateau J, Neve J, Fondu P, et al. Dose-response relationship to inhaled endotoxin in normal subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997 Oct;156(4 Pt 1):1157-64. PubMed PMID: 9351616. Google Scholar

  • [61] Liebers V, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Bruning T. Health effects due to endotoxin inhalation (review). Arch Toxicol. 2008 Apr;82(4):203-10. PubMed PMID: 18322674. Google Scholar

  • [62] Dubin W, Martin TR, Swoveland P, Leturcq DJ, Moriarty AM, Tobias PS, et al. Asthma and endotoxin: lipopolysaccharidebinding protein and soluble CD14 in bronchoalveolar compartment. The American journal of physiology. 1996 May;270(5 Pt 1):L736-44. PubMed PMID: 8967507. Google Scholar

  • [63] Becker S, Soukup JM, Gilmour MI, Devlin RB. Stimulation of human and rat alveolar macrophages by urban air particulates: effects on oxidant radical generation and cytokine production. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1996 Dec;141(2):637-48. PubMed PMID: 8975789. Google Scholar

  • [64] Bonner JC, Rice AB, Lindroos PM, O’Brien PO, Dreher KL, Rosas I, et al. Induction of the lung myofibroblast PDGF receptor system by urban ambient particles from Mexico City. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1998 Oct;19(4):672-80. PubMed PMID: 9761765. Google Scholar

  • [65] Lane SR, Nicholls PJ, Sewell RD. The measurement and health impact of endotoxin contamination in organic dusts from multiple sources: focus on the cotton industry. Inhalation toxicology. 2004 Apr;16(4):217-29. PubMed PMID: 15204769. Google Scholar

  • [66] Lai PS, Christiani DC. Long-term respiratory health effects in textile workers. Current opinion in pulmonary medicine. 2013 Mar;19(2):152-7. PubMed PMID: 23361196. PubMed Central PMCID: 3725301. Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2014-04-23

Accepted: 2014-05-23

Published Online: 2014-07-04


Citation Information: Biomonitoring, Volume 1, Issue 1, ISSN (Online) 2300-4606, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/bimo-2014-0004.

Export Citation

© 2014 Abdul Wali Khan, Armen Nersesyan. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in