Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Biomonitoring

1 Issue per year


Emerging Science

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2300-4606
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Workers’ dermal and total exposure to metals in biomass-fired power plants

M. Jumpponen
  • Corresponding author
  • Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Neulaniementie 4, FI-70101 Kuopio, Finland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ P. Heikkinen
  • Corresponding author
  • Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Neulaniementie 4, FI-70101 Kuopio, Finland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ H. Rönkkömäki
  • Corresponding author
  • Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, FI-00250 Helsinki, Finland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ J. Laitinen
  • Corresponding author
  • Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Neulaniementie 4, FI-70101 Kuopio, Finland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2015-01-15 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bimo-2015-0001

Abstract

The aim of this study was to measure ash removal and maintenance workers’ exposure to metals, and assess the suitability of different methods to evaluate metal exposure during these work tasks. Whole-body samples and hand-washing method were used in workers’ dermal exposure assessment, and biomonitoring methods of metals in total exposure assessment. The greatest levels of Al, Pb, Cd, Cu, S, and Zn on workers’ hands were measured in recycled fuel-fired power plants. The median concentrations of lead on workers’ whole-body samples were 4.5 ng/cm2, 17.0 ng/cm2, 11.3 ng/cm2, and 58.4 ng/cm2 in pellet-, peat-, wood- and recycled fuel-fired power plants, respectively. In recycled fuel-fired power plants, workers’ excretions of Al, Pb, and Mn exceeded the reference values of non-exposed population in 33%, 100%, and 50% of samples, respectively. The dermal exposure results clearly showed that power plant ash can significantly contaminate workers’ hands and bodies. The fact that the workers’ urinary excretions of metals exceeded the reference values proved intake of metals during these work tasks. Biomonitoring methods take into account exposures from different sources and, due to that, they are the most recommended approach for estimating the total metal exposure of workers. Hand-washing and whole body sampling were the most recommendable methods for assessing the protection efficiency of gloves and coveralls.

Keywords : Biomass-fired power plant; metals; dermal exposure; total exposure; biomonitoring

References

  • [1] Yager J.W., Jeffrey B., Hicks J.B., Fabianova E., Airborne Arsenic and Urinary Excretion of Arsenic Metabolites during Boiler Cleaning Operations in a Slovak Coal-fired Power Plant., Environmental Health Perspectives, 1997, 105, Number 8. Google Scholar

  • [2] Heating and Boiler Plant Equipment Mechanic, 5309., Federal Wage System Job Grading Standard for Heating and Boiler Plant Equipment Mechanic, 5309, 1992, U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Google Scholar

  • [3] Jumpponen M., Rönkkömäki H., Pasanen P. Laitinen J., Occupational exposure to solid chemical agents in biomass-fired power plants and associated health effects, Chemosphere, 2014, 104, 25-31. Google Scholar

  • [4] Sun C.C., Wong T.T., Hwang Y.T., Chao K.Y., Jee S.H., Wang J.D., Percutaneous absorption of inorganic lead compounds. AIHA Journal, 2002, 63, 641-646. Google Scholar

  • [5] Fijon L.F., Gianpietro A., Venier M., Maina G., Renzi N., In vitro percutaneous absorption of metal compounds. Toxicology Letters, 2007, 170, 49-56. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [6] Fijon L.F., D’Agostin F., Crosera M., Adami G, Bovenzi, M., Maina G., In vitro percutaneous absorption of chromium powder and the effect of skin cleanser. Toxicology in Vitro, 2008, 22, 1562-1567. Google Scholar

  • [7] Jumpponen M., Rönkkömäki H., Pasanen P. Laitinen J., Occupational exposure to gases, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds in biomassfired power plants, Chemosphere, 2013, 90, 1289-1293. Google Scholar

  • [8] Biological Monitoring Guidelines, 2011, Health and safety authority, The metropolitan Building, James Joyce Street, Dublin. Google Scholar

  • [9] Biological monitoring in the workplace, A guide to its practical application to chemical exposure, 1997, Health and safety executive, ISBN 978 0 7176 1279 6. Google Scholar

  • [10] Levy B.S., Hoffman L., Gottsegen S., Boilermakers’ bronchitis, Respiratory tract irritation associated with vanadium pentoxide exposure during oil-to-coal conversation of a power plant, 1984, Journal of Occupational Medicine, 26, 8, 567-570. Google Scholar

  • [11] Schilling C.J., Tams I.P., Schilling R.S.F., Nevitt A., Rossiter C.E., Wilkinson B., A survey into the respiratory effects of prolonged exposure to pulverized fuel ash, 1988, British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 45, 810-817. Google Scholar

  • [12] Khan A.A., de Jong W., Jansens P.J., Spliethoff H., Biomass combustion in fluidized bed boilers: Potential problems and remedies. Fuel processing technology, 2009, 90, 21-50. Google Scholar

  • [13] Obernberger I., Brunner T., Bärnthaler G., Chemical properties of solid biofuels-significance and impact, Biomass and Bioenergy, 2006, 30, 973-982. Google Scholar

  • [14] Meij R. and Winkel H., The emission of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants from modern coal-fired power stations, 2007, Atmospheric Environment, 41, 9262-9272. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [15] Di Monte D.A. The environment and Parkinson’s disease: is the nigrostrial system preferentially targeted by neurotoxins?, 2003, The LANCET Neurology, 2, 531-538. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [16] Barnham K.j. and Bush A.i. Metals in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, 2008, Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, 12, 222-228. Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [17] ISO 11466, Soil quality- Extraction of trace elements soluble in aqua regia, 1995. Google Scholar

  • [18] EN 1499.1997, Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics – Hygienic hand wash – Test method and requirements (phase 2/step 2), European committee for standardization. Brussels, 1997. Google Scholar

  • [19] United States Environmental Protection Agency, Microwave assisted digestion of sediment, sludges, soils, and oils, Method 3051A, 2007, revision 1, United States. Google Scholar

  • [20] Skerfving S., Nilsson U., Schutz A., Gerhardsson L. Biological monitoring of inorganic lead. 1993. Scand J Work Environ Health, 1993;19 suppl 1:59-64. Google Scholar

  • [21] Valkonen S. and Aitio A. Analysis of aluminium in serum and urine for the biomonitoring of occupational exposure. The science of the Total environment, 1997, 199, 103-110. Google Scholar

  • [22] In-house methods TY05-TY124, Urine beryllium, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Client Services, Risk assessment and biomonitoring, Helsinki Finland, 2011. Google Scholar

  • [23] Kiilunen M. and Autio, A. Dilution and mild ashing techniques for the routine determination of cadmium in blood and urine. International Symposium on trace elements in health and disease5-8.7.1990 Espoo, 1990, Abstract 86, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki. Google Scholar

  • [24] Järvisalo J., Olkinuora M., Kiilunen M., Kivistö H., Ristola P., Tossavainen A. and Autio A. Urinary and blood manganese in occupational nonexposed population and in manual metal arc welders of mild steel. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 1992, 63, 495-501. Google Scholar

  • [25] Hakala E. and Pyy L. Selective determination of toxicologically important arcenic species in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Journal of Analytical AtomicSpectroscopy, 1992, 7, 191-196. Google Scholar

  • [26] Hakala E. and Pyy L. Assessment of exposure to inorganic arsenic by determining the arsenic species excreted in urine. Toxicology Letters 1995, 77, 249-258. Google Scholar

  • [27] Schramel P., Wendler I., Angerer J., The determination of metals (antimony, bismuth, lead, cadmium, mercury, palladium, platinum, tellurium, thallium, tin, and tungsten) in urine by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 1997,69, 219-223. Google Scholar

  • [28] ISO 17294-1:2004 € Water quality – Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) – Part 1: general guideline. Google Scholar

  • [29] ISO 17294-2:2003 € Water quality – Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) – Part 2: Determination of 62 elements. Google Scholar

  • [30] Clark Jr, L.C. and Thompson H.L., Determination of creatinine and creatinine in urine, 1949, Anal. Chem., 1094, 21, 1218-1221. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [31] Pyy L., and Mäkelä M., Dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among Finnish coke oven workers, 2000, AICHE Annual Winter Meeting, Los Angeles CA, 2000. Technical sessions TS137. In On-line in https://www.aiha.org/aihce00/ handouts.html. Google Scholar

  • [32] Laitinen, J., Mäkelä, M., Mikkola, J., Huttu, I., Firefighting trainers’ exposure to carcinogenic agents in smoke diving simulators, 2010, Toxicology Letters 192, 61–65. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [33] Hakkarainen T., Tillander K., Järnström H., Paloposki, T. Laitinen J., Mäkelä M., Oksa P., Chemical exposure and protection of fire site workers. Interflam 2010. Proceedings of the twelfth international conference. Interscience Communications Ltd. London, 937-948. 2010. Google Scholar

  • [34] Moreira M.F. and Neves E.B., Use of urine lead levels as an exposure indicator and its relationship to blood lead, 2008,Cad Saude Publica, 24, 9:2151-2159. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [35] Bergdahl I.A. and Skerfving S., Biomonitoring of lead exposurealternatives to blood, 2008, J Toxicol Environ Health A., 71(18):1235-43. Google Scholar

  • [36] Morton J., Leese E., Harding A.-H., Jones K., Sepai O., Saliva as a matrix for biomonitoring of occupational and environmental exposure to lead. Biomonitoring 2014; 1: 75–84 Google Scholar

  • [37] Biomonitoring of exposure to chemicals, Guideline for specimen collection. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Work Environment Development Biomonitoring services team, 2014 Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2014-09-16

Accepted: 2014-12-23

Published Online: 2015-01-15


Citation Information: Biomonitoring, Volume 2, Issue 1, ISSN (Online) 2300-4606, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bimo-2015-0001.

Export Citation

© 2015 M. Jumpponen et al.. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in