Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Open Life Sciences

formerly Central European Journal of Biology

Editor-in-Chief: Ratajczak, Mariusz


IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0.504
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.583

CiteScore 2018: 0.63

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.266
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.311

ICV 2017: 154.48

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2391-5412
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 4, Issue 3

Issues

Volume 10 (2015)

Does handling reduce the winter body mass of the European hare?

Viktoria Takacs / Piotr Zduniak
  • Department of Avian Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, PL-61 614, Poznań, Poland
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Marek Panek / Piotr Tryjanowski
Published Online: 2009-07-26 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11535-009-0020-6

Abstract

Winter body mass of the European hare Lepus europaeus Pallas 1778 was analyzed with a special focus on changes induced by handling. Data were obtained from large scale translocation (net catchments) during 1960–1980 in Poland. The influence of handling was compared using the mass of first-time captured and repeatedly-captured hares, and, in case of repeated capture, individuals’ mass changes were investigated. The average body mass ranged from 2.1 kg to 5.0 kg. Generally, fewer factors influenced the hare’s body mass than expected. Body mass was related to age and winter precipitation, while the date of catching, sex and temperature did not have an effect. Body mass of first-captured hares were significantly higher than the re-captured ones (3.99±0.42 vs. 3.88±0.48, mean ±SD). Body mass change between captures was related to the date of the first capture, and the duration between the first capture and re-capture. Following the initial capture, a slight (2.8±2.6), but significant decrease in body weight occurred. Thus, the handling of hares should be used with caution during studies or management of the species.

Keywords: Body mass; Hare; Farmland; Lepus europaeus; Handling effect

  • [1] Ponjoan A., Bota G., De La Morena E.L.G., Morales M.B., Wolff A., Marco I., et al., Adverse effects of capture and handling little bustard, J. Wildl. Manage., 2008, 72, 315–319 http://dx.doi.org/10.2193/2006-443CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [2] Macleod R., Gosler A.G., Capture and mass change: perceived predation risk or interrupted foraging?, Anim. Behav., 2006, 71, 1081–1087 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2005.07.022CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [3] Rands, S.A., Cuthill, I.C., Separating the effects of predation risk and interrupted foraging upon mass changes in the blue tit Parus caeruleus, Proc. R. Soc. Lon. B. Biol. Sci., 2001, 268, 1783–1790 http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2001.1653CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [4] Suazo A.A., Angelique T., Delong E.T., Bard A.A., Oddy, D.M., Repeated capture of beach mice (Peromiscus polinotus and P. niveiventrus) reduces body mass, J. Mammal., 2005, 86, 520–523 http://dx.doi.org/10.1644/1545-1542(2005)86[520:RCOBMP]2.0.CO;2CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [5] Pearson D.E., Ortega Y.K., Ruggirro L.F., Trap induced mass declines in small mammals: mass as a population index, J. Wildl. Manage., 2003, 67, 684–691 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3802675CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [6] Pielowski Z., The effect of winter on the animal populations in 1970, Lowiec Polski, 1970, 5, 4–5, (in Polish) Google Scholar

  • [7] Ergon T., Speakman J.R., Scantlebury M.I., Cavanagh R., Lambin X., Optimal Body size and energy expenditure during winter: Why are voles smaller in declining populations?, Am. Nat., 2004, 163, 442–457 http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/381940CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [8] Bresiński W., Weather conditions vs. European hare population dynamics, In: Pielowski Z. (Ed.), Ecology and Management of European hare populations, Proceedings of European hare symposium, Poznań, Państwowe Wydawnictwo Rolnicze i Leśne, Warsaw, 1974, 105–115 Google Scholar

  • [9] Hodges K.E., Boonstra R., Krebs C.J., Overwinter mass loss of snowshoe hares in the Yukon starvation, stress, adaptation or artifact?, J. Anim. Ecol., 2006, 75, 1–13 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2005.01018.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [10] Cuthill I., Houston A., Managing time and energy, In: Krebs J., Davis N., (Eds.), Behavioural Ecology: an Evolutionary Approach, Blackwell Science, Oxford, 1997, 97–120 Google Scholar

  • [11] Blanckenhorn W.U., The evolution of body size: what keeps organisms small?, Q. Rev. Biol., 2000, 75, 385–407 http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/393620CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [12] Marboutin E., Bray Y., Péroux R., Mauvy B., Lartiges A., Population dynamics in European hare: breeding parameters and sustainable harvest rates, J. Appl. Ecol., 2003, 40, 580–591 http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2003.00813.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [13] Hansson L., Ultimate factors in the winter weight depression of small mammals, Mammalia, 1990, 54, 397–404 http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/mamm.1990.54.3.397CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [14] Millar J.S., Hickling G.J., Fasting endurance and the evolution of mammalian body size, Funct. Ecol., 1990, 4, 5–12 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2389646CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [15] Lima S.L., Predation risk and unpredictable feeding conditions: determinants of body-mass in birds, Ecology, 1986, 67, 377–385 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1938580CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [16] Brodin A., Mass-dependent predation and metabolic expenditure in wintering birds: is there a tradeoff between different forms of predation?, Anim. Behav., 2001, 62, 993–999 http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbe.2001.1844CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [17] Clark C.W., Dynamic models of behavior: an extension of life history theory, Trends Ecol. Evol., 1993, 8, 205–209 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0169-5347(93)90100-4CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [18] Tkadlec E., Zbořil J., Losik J., Gregor P., Lisická J., Winter climate and plant productivity predict abundances of small herbivores in central Europe, Clim. Res., 2006, 32, 99–108 http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/cr032099CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [19] Hik D.S., Does Risk of Predation Influence Population Dynamics? Evidence from the Cyclic Decline of Snowshoe Hares, J. Wildl. Res., 1995, 22, 15–29 Google Scholar

  • [20] Saarikko J., Risk of predation and foraging activity in shrews, Ann. Zool. Fenn., 1992, 29, 291–299 Google Scholar

  • [21] Edwards P.J., Fletcher, M.R., Berny P., Review of the factors affecting the decline of the European European hare Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778, and the use of wildlife incidend data to evaluate the significance of paraquat, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 2000, 79, 95–103 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(99)00153-XCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [22] Báldi A., Faragó S., Long-term changes of farmland game populations in a post-socialist country (Hungary), Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 2007, 118, 307–311 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2006.05.021CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [23] Pielowski Z., Pinkowski M., Numbers and distribution of the European hare in Poland, In: Pielowski Z. (Ed.), Materials of the International Hare Symposium, Czempiń 1992, Polish Hunting Association, 1995, 54–82 Google Scholar

  • [24] Smith R.K., Jennings N.V., Harris S., A quantitative analysis of the abundance and demography of European hares Lepus europaeus in relation to habitat type, intensity of agriculture and climate, Mammal Rev., 2005, 35, 1–24 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2907.2005.00057.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [25] Kuijper D.P.J., Beek P., van Wieren S.E., Bakker J.P., Time-scale effects in the interaction between a large and a small herbivore, Bas. Appl. Ecol., 2008, 10, 126–134 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2006.08.008CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [26] Andrzejewski R., Jezierski W., Studies on the European hare XI. Estimation of population density and attempt to plan the yearly take of hares, Acta Theriol., 1966, 12, 433–448 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [27] Pielowski Z., The individual growth curve of the hare, Acta Theriol., 1971, 16, 79–88 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [28] Pielowski Z., Ecological characteristics of the European hare Lepus europaeus Pallas 1778 population, Roczniki Akademii Rolniczej w Poznaniu, 1975, 65, 1–33, (in Polish) Google Scholar

  • [29] Pielowski Z., Pinkowski M., A 25-year study a hare population on the hunting grounds of the Research Station at Czempiń, In: Pielowski Z. (Ed.), Materials of the International Hare Symposium, Czempiń 1992, Polish Hunting Association, 1995, 143–156 Google Scholar

  • [30] Pielowski Z., Home range and degree of residence of the Europeran hare, Acta Theriol., 1972, 17, 93–103 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [31] Stroh G., Zwei sichere Altermerkmale eim Hasen, Berlin Tierarztl. Wschr., 1931, 12, 180–181, (in German) Google Scholar

  • [32] Andersen J., Some studies on the hare populations, Dan. Rev. Game Biol., 1958, 3, 70–71 Google Scholar

  • [33] Cabon-Raczyńska K., Variability of the body weight of European hares, Acta Theriol., 1974, 19, 69–80 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [34] Flux J.E., Reproduction and body weights of the hare Lepus europaeus Pallas, in New Zealand, New Zeal. J. Sci., 1967, 10, 357–401 Google Scholar

  • [35] Frylestam B., Growth and body weight of European hares in southern Sweden, Holarct. Ecol., 1980, 3, 817–886 Google Scholar

  • [36] Gosler A.G., The effects of trapping on the perception, and trade-off, of risks in the great tit Parus major, Ardea, 2001, 89, 75–84 Google Scholar

  • [37] Hodges K.E., Sinclair A.R.E., Does predation risk cause snowshoe hares to modify their diets?, Can. J. Zool., 2003, 81, 1973–1985 http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/z03-192CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [38] Jennings N. Smith R.K., Hackländer K., Harris S., White P.C., Variation in demography, condition and dietary quality of hares Lepus europaeus from highdensity and low-density populations, J. Wildl. Biol., 2006, 12, 179–189 http://dx.doi.org/10.2981/0909-6396(2006)12[179:VIDCAD]2.0.CO;2CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [39] Hackländer K., Arnold W., Ruf T., Postnatal development and thermoregulation in the precocial European hare (Lepus europaeus), J. Comp. Physiol., 2002, 172, 183–190 Google Scholar

  • [40] Myrcha A., Caloric value and chemical composition of the body of the European hare, Acta Theriol., 1968, 13, 65–71 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [41] Gosler A.G., Strategy and constraint in the winter fattening response to temperature in the great tit Parus major, J. Anim. Ecol., 2002, 71, 771–779 http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2656.2002.00642.xCrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2009-07-26

Published in Print: 2009-09-01


Citation Information: Open Life Sciences, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 427–433, ISSN (Online) 2391-5412, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11535-009-0020-6.

Export Citation

© 2009 Versita Warsaw. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Jan Hušek, Marek Panek, Piotr Tryjanowski, and T. Tregenza
Ethology, 2015, Volume 121, Number 6, Page 593
[2]
Christos Sokos, Periklis Birtsas, Konstantinos G. Papaspyropoulos, Alexios Giannakopoulos, Labrini V. Athanasiou, Katerina Manolakou, Vassiliki Spyrou, and Charalambos Billinis
Environmental Management, 2015, Volume 55, Number 1, Page 19
[3]
C.-G. Thulin, J. Malmsten, and A. Laurila
European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2012, Volume 58, Number 6, Page 897

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in