Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details

Open Life Sciences

formerly Central European Journal of Biology

Editor-in-Chief: Ratajczak, Mariusz

1 Issue per year


IMPACT FACTOR increased in 2015: 0.814
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.870

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.362
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.538
Impact per Publication (IPP) 2015: 0.929

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2391-5412
See all formats and pricing
Volume 8, Issue 11 (Nov 2013)

Issues

A study of the phototoxic effect of Benzo[a] Pyrene on bacteria

Alžbeta Takáčová
  • VÚRUP, a.s., 820 03, Bratislava, Slovak Republic
  • Department of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, 812 37, Bratislava, Slovakia
  • Email:
/ Miroslava Smolinská
  • Department of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, 812 37, Bratislava, Slovakia
  • Department of Microbiology and Virology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, 842 15, Bratislava, Slovakia
  • Email:
/ Petra Olejníková
  • Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Biochemistry, Nutrition and Health Protection, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, 812 37, Bratislava, Slovakia
  • Email:
/ Tomáš Mackuľak
  • Department of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, 812 37, Bratislava, Slovakia
  • Email:
/ Gabriel Čík
  • Department of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, 812 37, Bratislava, Slovakia
  • Email:
Published Online: 2013-08-10 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11535-013-0221-x

Abstract

Although Benzo[a]Pyrene (BaP) released to soils tends to bind very strongly to soil particles, however, small amounts have been shown to leach into groundwaters. This polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon is stable and can stay (and travel) in the environment for an extended period of time. Release of BaP into the environment therefore causes concern at a global environmental level. In this paper we evaluated the effect of BaP on the cell growth of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in aerobic conditions. Irradiation of BaP increased its antibacterial activity which suggests that this process produced a singlet oxygen. This way would be able to speed up the processes of photochemical degradation of BaP.

Keywords: Escherichia coli; Enterococcus faecalis; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Phototoxicity

  • [1] WHO, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Some non-heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some related exposures, Lyon, France, 2010, 92, 394–423

  • [2] WHO, Background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking — water quality, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking-water, Geneva, 1998, 2, 1–2

  • [3] Southworth G.R., The role of volatilization in removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aquatic environments, B. Environ. Contam. Tox., 1979, 21, 507–514 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01685462 [Crossref]

  • [4] Bossert I.D., Bartha R., Structure-biodegradability relationships of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil, B. Environ. Contam. Tox., 1986, 37, 490–495 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01607793 [Crossref]

  • [5] Coover M.P., Sims R.C., The effect of temperature on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon persistence in an unacclimated agricultural soil, Hazard Waste Hazard., 1987, 4, 69–82 http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/hwm.1987.4.69 [Crossref]

  • [6] Park K.S., Sim R.C., Dupont R.R., Doucette W.J., Matthews J.E., Fate of PAH compounds in two soil types: influence of volatilization, abiotic loss and biological activity, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 1990, 9, 187–195 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620090208 [Crossref]

  • [7] Wild S.R., Berrow M.L., Jones K.C., The persistence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s) in sewage sludge amended agricultural soils, Environ. Pollut., 1991, 72, 141–157 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0269-7491(91)90064-4 [Crossref]

  • [8] Atkinson R., Structure-activity relationship for the estimation of rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with organic compounds, Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 1987, 19, 799–828 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/kin.550190903 [Crossref]

  • [9] Mill T., Mabey W.R., Lan B.Y., Baraze A., Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, Chemosphere, 1982, 10, 1281–1290 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(81)90045-X [Crossref]

  • [10] Mill T., Mabey W.R., Photochemical transformations, In: Neely W.B., Blau G.E. (Eds.) Environmental exposure from chemicals, CRC Press, FL, 1985

  • [11] Zepp R.G., Schlotzhauer P.F., Photoreactivity of selected aromatic hydrocarbons in water, In: Jones P.W., Leber P. (Eds.) Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Third International Symposium on Chemistry and Biology — Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, MI, 1979

  • [12] Jouanneau Y., Meyer C., Purification and characterization of an arene cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase endowed with broad substrate specificity toward polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dihydrodiols, Appl. Environ. Microb., 2006, 72, 4726–4734 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00395-06 [Crossref]

  • [13] Heitkamp M.A., Cerniglia C.E., Mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a bacterium isolated from sediment below an oil field, Appl. Environ. Microb., 1988, 54, 1612–1614

  • [14] Schneider J., Grosser R., Jayasimhulu K., Xue W., Warshawsky D., Degradation of pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[a] pyrene by Mycobacterium sp. strain RJGII-135, isolated from a former coal gasification site, App. Environ. Microb., 1996, 62, 13–19

  • [15] Schlautman M.A., Morgan J.J., Effects of aqueous chemistry on the binding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by dissolved humic materials, Environ. Sci. Technol., 1993, 27, 961–969 http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es00042a020 [Crossref]

  • [16] Cerniglia C.E., Fungal metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: past, present and future applications in bioremediation, J. Ind. Microbiol. Biot., 1997, 19, 324–333 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.jim.2900459 [Crossref]

  • [17] Ledakowicz S, Miller J., Olejnik D., Degradation of chrysene and fluorene in water solutions by advanced oxidation process, In: Zarzycki R., Małecki Z. (Eds.) Chemical Industry and Environment III, Technical University, Poland, 1999

  • [18] Miller J.S., Olejnik D., Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, Water Res., 2001, 35, 233–243 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(00)00230-X [Crossref]

  • [19] Stucki G., Alexander M., Role of dissolution rate and solubility in biodegradation of aromatic compounds, App. Environ. Microb., 1987, 53, 292–297

  • [20] Boysen G., Hecht S.S., Analysis of DNA and protein adducts of benzo(a)pyrene in human tissues using structure-specific methods, Mutat. Res., 2003, 543, 17–30 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1383-5742(02)00068-6 [Crossref]

  • [21] Council Directive 98/83/EC, The quality of water intended for human consumption, Off. J.Europ. Communit., 1998, 330, 42

  • [22] Arfsten D.P., Schaeffer D.J., Mulveny D.C., The effect of near ultraviolet radiation on toxic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in animals and plants. A Review, Ecotox. Environ. Safe., 1996, 33, 1–24 http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/eesa.1996.0001 [Crossref]

  • [23] Mallakin A., Babu T., Dixon D.G., Greenberg B.M., Sites of toxicity of specific photooxidation products of anthracene to higher plants: Inhibition of photosynthetic activity and electron transport in Lemna gibba L. G-3 (Duckweed), Environ. Toxicol., 2002, 17, 462–471 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.10080 [Crossref]

  • [24] Ren L., Huang X.D., McConkey B.J., Dixon D.G., Greenberg B.M., Photoinduced toxicity of three polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluoranthene, pyrene, and naphthalene) to the Duckweed Lemna gibba L. G-3, Ecotox. Environ. Safe., 1994, 28, 160–171 http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/eesa.1994.1042 [Crossref]

  • [25] Ren L., Zeiler L.F., Dixon D.G., Greenberg B.M., Photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on Brassica napus (Canola) during germination and early seedling development, Ecotox. Environ. Safe., 1996, 35, 190–197 http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/eesa.1996.0099 [Crossref]

  • [26] Huang X.-D., Dixon D.G., Greenburg B.M., Impacts of UV radiation and photomodification on toxicity of PAHs to higher plant Lemna gibba (Duckweed), Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 1993, 12, 1067–1077

  • [27] Cody T.E., Radike M.J., Warshawsky D., The phototoxity of benzo(a)pyrene in green algae Selenastrum capriconutum, Environ. Res., 1984, 35, 122–132 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0013-9351(84)90119-1 [Crossref]

  • [28] Cerniglia C.E., Microbial metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Adv. Appl. Microbiol., 1984, 30, 31–71 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2164(08)70052-2 [Crossref]

  • [29] Cerniglia C.E., Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Biodegradation, 1992, 3, 351–368 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00129093 [Crossref]

  • [30] Sutherland J.B., Rafii F., Khan A.A., Cerniglia C.E., Mechanisms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, In: Young L.Y., Cerniglia C.E. (Eds.) Microbial Transformation and Degradation of Toxic Organic Chemicals Wiley-Liss, New York, 1995

  • [31] Jantová S., Hudecová D., Stankovský Š., Špirková K., Ružeková Ľ., Antibacterial effect of substituted 4-quinazolylhydrazines and their arylhydrazones determined by modified microdilution method, Folia Microbiol., 1995, 40, 611–614 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02818517 [Crossref]

  • [32] Dabestani R., Ivanov I.N., A compilation of physical, spectroscopic and photophysical properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Photochem. Photobiol., 1999, 70, 10–30

  • [33] Toyooka T., Ibuki Y., Takabayashi F., Goto R., Coexposure to benzo[a]pyrene and UVA induces DNA damage: First proof of double-strand breaks in a cell-free system, Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2006, 47, 38–47 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/em.20166 [Crossref]

  • [34] Wang S., Sheng Y., Feng M., Leszczynski J., Wang L., Tachikawa H., et al., Light-induced cytotoxicity of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the US EPA priority pollutant list in human skin HaCaT keratinocytes: Relationship between phototoxicity and excited state properties, Environ. Toxicol., 2007, 22, 318–327 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.20241 [Crossref]

  • [35] Kohen E., Santus R., Hirschberg J.G., Photobiology, Academic Press, Canada, 1995

  • [36] Ankley G.T., Burkhard L.P., Cook P.M., Diamond S.A., Erickson R.J., Mount D.R., Assessing Risks from Photoactivated Toxicity of PAHs to Aquatic Organisms, In: Douben P.E.T. (Ed.) PAHs: An Ecotoxicological Perspective, John Wiley & Sons Inc, Canada, 2003

  • [37] Krylov S.N., Huang X.-D., Zeiler L.F., Dixon D.G., Greenberg B.M., Mechanistic Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Model for the Photoinduced Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: I. Physical Model Based on Chemical Kinetics in a Two-Compartment System, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 1997, 16, 2283–2295

  • [38] Larson R.A., Berenbaum M.R., Environmental Phototoxicity, Environ. Sci. Technol., 1988, 22, 354–360 http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es00169a001 [Crossref]

  • [39] Tobit V., Verma O.P., Ramteke P.W., Ray R.S., Phototoxic Assesment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Using NIH-3T3 and L-929 Cell Lines, J. AIDS Clinic Res., 2011, 2, 123 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2155-6113.1000123

  • [40] Mukhtar H., Del Tito B.J. Jr., Das M., Cherniack E.P., Chemiack A.D., Bickers D.R., Clotrimazole, an Inhibitor of Epidermal Benzo(a)pyrene Metabolism and DNA Binding and Carcinogenicity of the Hydrocarbon, Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 1984, 44, 4233–4240

  • [41] Botta C., Di Giorgio C., Sabatier A.-S., De Méo M., Effects of UVA and Visible Light on the Photogenotoxicity of Benzo[a]pyrene and Pyrene, Environ. Toxicol., 2009, 24, 492–505 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.20455 [Crossref]

  • [42] Sverdrup L.E., Hagenc S.B., Kroghd P.H., Van Gestel C.A.M., Benzo(a)pyrene shows low toxicity to three species of terrestrial plants, two soil invertebrates, and soil-nitrifying bacteria, Ecotox. Environ. Safe, 2007, 66, 362–368 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2006.01.007 [Crossref]

  • [43] Mackay D., Shiu W.Y., Ma K.C., Illustrated Handbook of Physical-Chemical Properties and Environmental Fate for Organic Chemicals, Ann Arbor, Lewis Publishers, 1992

  • [44] De Maagd P.G.-J., Ten Hulscher D.T.E.M., Van Den Heuvel H., Opperhuizen A., Sijm D.T.H.M., Physicochemical Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Aqueous Solubilities, n-Octanol/Water Partition Coefficients, and Henry’s Law Constants, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 1998, 17, 251–257

  • [45] Lehto K.M., Vuorimaa E., Lemmetyinen H., Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dilute aqueous solutions detected by fluorescence, J. Photoch. Photobio. A, 2000, 136, 53–60 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1010-6030(00)00321-X [Crossref]

  • [46] Bednáriková A., Skláršová B., Kolek E., Šimko P., Photolysis of benzo[a]pyrene in model systems and quest to identify some of oxidized products by HPLC-MS-MS, Chem. Listy, 2010, 104, 537–540

  • [47] Dipple A., Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, American Chemical Society, 1984, 2, 41–163

  • [48] Gao D., Luo Y., Guevara D., Wang Y., Rui M., Goldwyn B., et al., Benzo[a]pyrene and its metabolites combined with ultraviolet A synergistically induce 8-hydroxy-2V-deoxyguanosine via reactive oxygen species, Free Radical Bio. Med., 2005, 39, 1177–1183 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2005.06.005 [Crossref]

About the article

Published Online: 2013-08-10

Published in Print: 2013-11-01


Citation Information: Open Life Sciences, ISSN (Online) 2391-5412, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11535-013-0221-x. Export Citation

© 2013 Versita Warsaw. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in