Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Biological Letters

The Journal of Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Biology; Poznan Society for the Advancement of the Arts and Sciences

2 Issues per year

CiteScore 2016: 0.20

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Vegetation structure and ecological characteristics of forest of North Andaman Islands (India)

P. Prasad
  • Laboratory for Spatial Informatics, International Institute of Information Technology, Gachibowli, Hyderabad-500032, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ A. Sringeswara
  • Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bangalore-560065, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ C. Reddy
  • Forestry and Ecology Division, Department of Space, National Remote Sensing Agency, Balanagar, Hyderabad-500037, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ P. Kumari / R. Varalakshmi / S. Raza / C. Dutt
  • Department of Space, Indian Space Research Organization, Anthariksh Bhavan, Bangalore-560094, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2010-07-12 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10120-009-0006-0

Vegetation structure and ecological characteristics of forest of North Andaman Islands (India)

In this study, 3-ha research plots were established, one each in evergreen, semi-evergreen, and moist deciduous forests of North Andaman Islands. These 3 vegetation types were selected to study the structural aspects of plant diversity in forest communities. Our results showed high species richness and basal area in evergreen forest, high diversity in semi-evergreen forest, and high tree density (trees ha-1) in moist deciduous forest. At family level, the Anacardiaceae and Sterculiaceae dominated all the forest types, and were distributed throughout the North Andaman Islands. In the 3 forest communities, most species exhibited clumped spatial distribution, while random distribution ranked second. Tree girth class distribution revealed a decreasing number of trees with increasing girth class, indicating natural regeneration of these forest types. The species-area curve clearly reached a plateau at 3-ha area in respect of species number, supporting the adequacy of the large plot size selected in the present investigation. The study recorded a total of 136 tree species in the 3 forest communities and was higher than in many other tropical forest sites. The vegetation analysis of 3-ha plot in 3 different forest types substantially contributed data on North Andaman site potentiality, with reference to its species richness and diversity.

Keywords: ecological niche; spatial distribution; plant diversity; forest community; island vegetation

  • Allen R. B., Lee. W. G., Rance. B. D. 1994. Regeneration in indigenous forest after eradication of Norway rats, Breaksea Island, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 32: 429-439.Google Scholar

  • Armesto J. J., Mitchell J. D., Villagran C. 1986. A comparison of spatial patterns of trees in some tropical and temperate forests. Biotropica 18: 1-11.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ayyapan N., Parthasarathy N. 1999. Biodiversity inventory of trees in a large-scale permanent plot of tropical EG forest at Varagalaiar, Anamalais, Western Ghats, India. Biodivers. Conserv. 8: 1533-1554.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Batalha M. A., Mantovani W., Mesquita Júnior H. N., De Rees M., Condit R., Crawley M., Pacala S., Tilman D. 2001. Long term studies of vegetation dynamics. Science 293: 650-655.Google Scholar

  • Blasco F., Whitmore T. C., Gers C. 2000. A framework for the worldwide comparison of tropical woody vegetation types. Biol. Conserv. 95: 175-189.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Borcard D., Legendre P., Drapeau P. 1992. Partialling out the spatial component of ecological variation. Ecology 73: 1045-1055.Google Scholar

  • Bunyavejchewin S., Baker P. J., Lafrankie J. V., Ashton P. S. 2001. Stand structure of a seasonal dry evergreen forest at Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Thailand. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 49: 89-106.Google Scholar

  • Campbell D. G., Stone J. L., Rosas Jr. A. 1992. A comparison of the phytosociology and dynamics of three floodplain (varzea) forest of known ages, Rio Jurua, western Brazilian Amazon. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 108: 213-237.Google Scholar

  • Chandrashekara U. M., Ramakrishnan P. S. 1994. Vegetation and gap dynamics of a tropical wet evergreen forest in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India. J. Trop. Ecol. 10: 337-354.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Clark D. B., Clark D. A. J., Read. M. 1998. Edaphic variation and the mesoscale distribution of tree species in a neotropical rain forest. J. Ecol. 86: 101-112.Google Scholar

  • Condit R. 1995. Research in large, long-term tropical forest plots. Trends Ecol. Evol. 10: 18-22Google Scholar

  • Condit R., Sukumar R., Hubbell S. P., Foster R. B. 1998. Predicting population trends from size distributions: a direct test in a tropical tree community. Am. Nat. 152: 495-509.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cottam G., Curtis J. T. 1956. The use of distance measurement in phytosociological sampling. Ecology 37: 451-460.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Coyne J. A., Orr H. A. 2004. Speciation. Sinauer Associates Inc, Sunderlands.Google Scholar

  • Debski I., Burslem D. F. R. P., Lamb D. 2000. Ecological processes maintaining differential tree species distributions in an Australian subtropical rain forest: implications for models of species coexistence. J. Trop. Ecol. 16: 387-415.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Devaraj P. 2001. Forests of Andaman Islands. International Book Distributors, Dehradun.Google Scholar

  • Elaine R. H., Legendre P., Condit R. 2004. Factors affecting community composition of forest regeneration in deforested, abandoned land in Panama. Ecology 85: 3313-3326.Google Scholar

  • Empson L., Flenley J., Sheppard P. 2002._ A dated pollen record of vegetation change on Mayor Island (Tuhua) throughout the last 3000 years. Global Planet. Change. 33: 329-337.Google Scholar

  • Ganesh T., Ganesan R., Soubadradevy M., Davidar P., Bawa K. S. 1996. Assessment of plant biodiversity at a mid-elevation evergreen forest of Kalalad Mudanthurai Tiger reserve, Western Ghats of India. Curr. Sci. India. 71: 379-392.Google Scholar

  • Gaston K. J. 1996. Biodiversity: A biology of numbers and difference. p. 396, Blackwell Science, Oxford.Google Scholar

  • Ghate U., Joshi N. V., Gadgil M. 1998. On the patterns of tree diversity in the Western Ghats of India. Curr. Sci. India 75: 594-603.Google Scholar

  • Grant V. 1981. Plant speciation. 2nd ed., Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar

  • Gunatilleke C. V. S., Gunatilleke I. A. U. N., Ethugala A. U. K., Esufali S. 2004. Ecology of Sinharaja rain forest and the forest dynamics plot in Sri Lanka's Natural World Heritage Site, WHT Publications, Colombo.Google Scholar

  • Hill M. O. 1973. Diversity and evenness: a unifying notation and its consequences. Ecology 54: 427-432.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hitendra P., Chauhan N., Porwal M. C., Roy P. S. 2004. Phytosociological observations on tree species diversity of Andaman Islands. Curr. Sci. India. 87: 799-806.Google Scholar

  • Hou J. H., Mi X. C., Liu C. R., Ma K. P. 2004. Spatial patterns and associations in a Quercus Betula forest in northern China. J. Veg. Sci. 15: 407-414.Google Scholar

  • Hubbell S. P., Foster R. B., Obrien S. T., Harms K. E., Condit R., Wechsler B., Wright S. J., De Lao S. L. 1999. Light-gap disturbances, recruitment limitation, and tree diversity in a neotropical forest. Science 283: 554-557.Google Scholar

  • Jacobs J. D., Headley A. N., Maus L. A., Mode W. N., Simms É. L. 1997. Climate and vegetation of the Interior Lowlands of Southern Baffin Island: long-term stability at the low arctic limit. Arctic 50: 167-177.Google Scholar

  • Krupnick G. A., Kress W. J. 2003. Hotspots and ecoregions: A test of conservation priorities using taxonomic data. Biodivers. Conserv. 12: 2237-2253.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lan G., Hu Y., Cao M., Zhu H., Wang H., Zhou S., Deng X., Cui J., Huang J., Liu L., Xu H., Song J., He Y. 2008. Establishment of Xishuangbanna tropical forest dynamics plot: species compositions and spatial distribution patterns. J. Plant Ecol. 32: 287-298 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar

  • Lan G., Zhu H., Cao M., Hu Y., Wang H., Deng X, Zhou S., Cui J., Huang J., He Y., Liu L., Xu H., Song J. 2009. Spatial dispersion patterns of trees in a tropical rainforest in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China. Ecol. Res. 24:1117-1124.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lee H. S., Davies S. J., Lafrankie J. V., Tan S., Yamakura T., Itoh A., Ashton P. S. 2002. Floristic and structural diversity of 52 hectares of mixed dipterocarp forest in Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. J. Trop. For. Sci. 14: 379-400Google Scholar

  • Lieberman D., Lieberman M., Peralta R., Hartshorn G. S. 1996. Tropical forest structure and composition on a large-scale altitudinal gradient in Costa Rica. J. Ecol. 84: 137-152.Google Scholar

  • MacArthur R. H., Wilson E. O. 1967. The theory of island biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New York.Google Scholar

  • Manokaran N., La Frankie Jr. J. V., Kochummen K. M., Quah E. S., Klahn J. E., Ashton P. S., Hubbell S. P. 1990. In: Methodology for the fifty hectare research plot at Pasoh Forest Reserve (Chan H. T., Ed), Research Pamphlet, vol. 104, pp. 1-69, Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, Kepong, Malaysia.Google Scholar

  • Murphy P. G., Lugo A. E. 1986. Ecology of dry forest. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 17: 67-88.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Myers W. L., Patil G. P., Taillie C. 1995. Comparative paradigms for Biodiversity Assessment. In: Measuring and Monitoring Biodiversity in Tropical and Temperate Forests (Boyle T. J., Boontawee B., Eds), Proceedings of the IUFRO Symposium, Chiang - Mai, Thailand, 27 VIII - 02 IX 1994, pp. 67-85, CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.Google Scholar

  • Nadkarni N. M., Matelson T. J., Haber W. A. 1995. Structural characteristics and floristic composition of a Neotropical cloud forest, Monteverde, Costa Rica. J. Trop. Ecol. 11: 481-495.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Negi H. R. 2001. Diversity and dominance of liverworts of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Int. J. Ecol. Environ. Sci. 27: 13-21.Google Scholar

  • Parthasarathy N. 1988. A phytogeographic analysis of the flora of Kalakad reserve forest Western Ghats. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 67: 342-345.Google Scholar

  • Parthasarathy N. 1999. Tree diversity and distribution in undisturbed and human-impacted sites of tropical wet evergreen forest in southern Western Ghats, India. Biodivers. Conserv. 8: 1365-1381.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Parthasarathy N., Karthikeyan R. 1997. Biodiversity and population density of woody species in a tropical evergreen forest in Courtallum reserve forest, Western Ghats, India. Trop. Ecol. 38: 297-306.Google Scholar

  • Parthasarathy N., Arthur Selwyn M., Udayakumar M. 2008. Tropical dry evergreen forests of peninsular India: ecology and conservation significance. T. C. S. 1: 89-110.Google Scholar

  • Pascal J. P., Pelissier R. 1996. Structure and floristic composition of tropical evergreen forest in southwest India. J. Trop. Ecol. 12: 191-214.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Pascal J. P., Ramesh B. R., Bourgeon G. 1998. The Kan Forests of the Karnataka Plateau (India) structure and floristic compositions. Trends in the changes due to their exploitation. Trop. Ecol. 29: 9-23.Google Scholar

  • Prasad R. C. P., Reddy C. S., Dutt C. B. S. 2007. Phytodiversity assessment of tropical rainforest of North Andaman Islands, India. Res. J. For. 1: 27-39.Google Scholar

  • Prasad R. C. P., Reddy C. S., Dutt C. B. S. 2008. Phytodiversity zonation in North Andaman Islands, India, using remote sensing, GIS and phytosociological data. Res. J. Environ. Sci. 2: 1-12.Google Scholar

  • Prasad R. C. P., Sringeswara A. N, Reddy C. S., Nagabhatla N., Rajan K. S, Giriraj A., Murthy M. S. R., Raza S. H., Dutt C. B. S. 2009. Assessment of forest fragmentation and species diversity in North Andaman Islands (India): a geospatial approach. I. J. E. D. 13: 35-48.Google Scholar

  • Price J. P., Wagner L. Warren. 2004. Speciation in Hawaiian angiosperm lineages: cause, consequence, and mode. Evolution 58: 2185-2200.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Rajkumar M., Parthasarathy N. 2008. Tree diversity and structure of Andaman Giant Evergreen Forests, India. Taiwania 53: 356-368.Google Scholar

  • Richards P. W. 1996. The tropical rain forest an ecological study. (Richards P. W. with contributions by Walsh R. P. D, Baillie I. C. Greig-Smith P., Eds), 2ed edition, Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, Cambridge.Google Scholar

  • Roy P. S., Padalia H., Chauhan N., Porwal M. C., Biswas S., Jagdale R. 2005. Validation of geospatial model for biodiversity characterization at landscape level - a study in Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India. Ecol. Model. 185: 349-369.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ruokolainen K., Linna A., Tuomisto H. 1997. Use of Melastomataceae and pteridophytes for revealing phytogeographical patterns in Amazonian rain forests. J. Trop. Ecol. 13: 243-256.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Seidler T. G., Plotkin J. B. 2007. Seed dispersal and spatial pattern in tropical trees. PLoS Biol. 4: 2132-2137.Google Scholar

  • Shannon C. E., Weaver W. 1963. The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.Google Scholar

  • Simpson E. H. 1949. Measurement of diversity. Nature 163: 688.Google Scholar

  • Sorensen T. 1948. A method of establishing groups of equal amplitude in plant sociology based on similarity of species and its application to analyses of the vegetation on Danish commons. Biol. Skrif. 5: 1-34.Google Scholar

  • Stewart G. H. 1986. Forest dynamics and disturbance in a beech/hardwood forest, Fiordland, New Zealand. Vegetatio 68: 115-126.Google Scholar

  • Strasberg D. 1996. Diversity, size composition and spatial aggregation among trees on a one-hect-are rainforest plot at a La Réunion. Biodivers. Conserv. 5: 825-840.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sukumar R., Dattaraja H. S., Suresh H. S., Radhakrishnan J. V., Vasudeva R., Nirmala S., Joshi N. V. 1992. Long-term monitoring of vegetation in a tropical deciduous forest in Mudumalai, Southern India. Curr. Sci. India. 62: 608-616.Google Scholar

  • Terborgh J., Foster R. B., Nunez P. V. 1996. Tropical tree communities: a test of the nonequilibrium hypothesis. Ecology 77: 561-567.Google Scholar

  • Thompson J., Brokaw N., Zimmerman J. K., Waide R. B., Everham III E. M., Lodge D. J., Taylor C. M., Garcia- Montel D., Fluet M. 2002. Land use history, environment, and tree composition in a tropical forest. Ecol. Appl. 12: 1344-1363.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Tuomisto H., Poulse A. D., Ruokolainen K., Moran R. C., Quintana C., Celi J., Canas G. 2003. Linking floristic patterns with soil heterogeneity and satellite imagery in Ecuadorian Amazonia. Ecol. Appl. 13: 352-371.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Valencia R., Balslev H., Mino G. C. P. Y. 1994. High tree alpha-diversity in Amazonian Ecuador. Biodivers. Conserv. 3: 21-28.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • White M. J. D. 1978. Modes of speciation. W. H Freeman and Company, San Francisco.Google Scholar

  • Wikramanayake E. D., Dinerstein E., Loucks C. J., Olson D. M., Morrison J., Lamoreux J., McKnight M., Hedao P. 2002. Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: A Conservation Assessment. Island Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar

  • Zimmerman J. K., Everham E. M. I., Waide R. B., Lodge D. J., Taylor C. M., Brokaw N. V. L. 1994. Responses of tree species to hurricane winds in subtropical wet forest in Puerto Rico: implications for tropical tree life histories. J. Ecol. 82: 911-922.Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2010-07-12

Published in Print: 2009-01-01

Citation Information: Biological Letters, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 105–121, ISSN (Online) 1734-7467, ISSN (Print) 1644-7700, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10120-009-0006-0.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in