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Volume 67, Issue 4


Bird community structure in natural and urbanized habitats along an altitudinal gradient in Pauri district (Garhwal Himalaya) of Uttarakhand state, India

Archana Naithani
  • Avian Diversity and Bioacoustics Laboratory, Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar, 249 404, Uttarakhand, India
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/ Dinesh Bhatt
  • Avian Diversity and Bioacoustics Laboratory, Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar, 249 404, Uttarakhand, India
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Published Online: 2012-06-30 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11756-012-0068-z


In the Indian subcontinent there is hardly any study that compares the bird community structure of urban/suburban areas with those of forest habitat. The present survey identified diverse assemblages of birds in the Pauri district at different elevations. A total of 125 bird species belonging to 40 families including two least count species (Lophura leucomelanos and Pucrasia marcolopha) were recorded during this survey in the forest and urbanized habitats of Pauri District (Garhwal Hiamalaya) of Uttarakhand state, India. The high elevation (Pauri 1600–2100 m a.s.l.), mid elevation (Srikot-Khanda 900–1300 m a.s.l.) and low elevation (Srinagar 500–900 m a.s.l.) contributed 88.8%, 63.2% and 58.4% of the total species respectively. Rarefaction analysis and Shannon diversity index showed that the high elevation forest habitat had highest bird species richness (BSR) and bird species diversity (BSD) followed by the mid and then the low elevation forests. BSR and BSD fluctuated across seasons at all elevations but not across habitat types. Present study provides a base line data about avian community composition in urbanized and natural habitats along altitudinal gradient in the study area. This information may be useful to the conservation biologists for the better management and conservation of the avifauna in the Western Himalaya, a part of one of the hot biodiversity spots of the world.

Keywords: bird community structure; avian diversity; altitudinal gradient; western Himalaya

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Published Online: 2012-06-30

Published in Print: 2012-08-01

Citation Information: Biologia, Volume 67, Issue 4, Pages 800–808, ISSN (Online) 1336-9563, ISSN (Print) 0006-3088, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11756-012-0068-z.

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Rolando, Alexis Cerezo, Kim Alan Chapman, Matthieu Chauvat, Morten Christensen, Francis M. Clarke, Daniel F.R. Cleary, Giorgio Colombo, Stuart P. Connop, Michael D. Craig, Leopoldo Cruz-López, Saul A. Cunningham, Biagio D'Aniello, Neil D'Cruze, Pedro Giovâni da Silva, Martin Dallimer, Emmanuel Danquah, Ben Darvill, Jens Dauber, Adrian L. V. Davis, Jeff Dawson, Claudio de Sassi, Benoit de Thoisy, Olivier Deheuvels, Alain Dejean, Jean-Louis Devineau, Tim Diekötter, Jignasu V. Dolia, Erwin Domínguez, Yamileth Dominguez-Haydar, Silvia Dorn, Isabel Draper, Niels Dreber, Bertrand Dumont, Simon G. Dures, Mats Dynesius, Lars Edenius, Paul Eggleton, Felix Eigenbrod, Zoltán Elek, Martin H. Entling, Karen J. Esler, Ricardo F. de Lima, Aisyah Faruk, Nina Farwig, Tom M. Fayle, Antonio Felicioli, Annika M. Felton, Roderick J. Fensham, Ignacio C. Fernandez, Catarina C. Ferreira, Gentile F. Ficetola, Cristina Fiera, Bruno K. C. Filgueiras, Hüseyin K. Fırıncıoğlu, David Flaspohler, Andreas Floren, Steven J. Fonte, Anne Fournier, Robert E. Fowler, Markus Franzén, Lauchlan H. Fraser, Gabriella M. Fredriksson, Geraldo B. Freire, Tiago L. M. Frizzo, Daisuke Fukuda, Dario Furlani, René Gaigher, Jörg U. Ganzhorn, Karla P. García, Juan C. Garcia-R, Jenni G. Garden, Ricardo Garilleti, Bao-Ming Ge, Benoit Gendreau-Berthiaume, Philippa J. Gerard, Carla Gheler-Costa, Benjamin Gilbert, Paolo Giordani, Simonetta Giordano, Carly Golodets, Laurens G. L. Gomes, Rachelle K. Gould, Dave Goulson, Aaron D. Gove, Laurent Granjon, Ingo Grass, Claudia L. Gray, James Grogan, Weibin Gu, Moisès Guardiola, Nihara R. Gunawardene, Alvaro G. Gutierrez, Doris L. Gutiérrez-Lamus, Daniela H. Haarmeyer, Mick E. Hanley, Thor Hanson, Nor R. Hashim, Shombe N. Hassan, Richard G. Hatfield, Joseph E. Hawes, Matt W. Hayward, Christian Hébert, Alvin J. Helden, John-André Henden, Philipp Henschel, Lionel Hernández, James P. Herrera, Farina Herrmann, Felix Herzog, Diego Higuera-Diaz, Branko Hilje, Hubert Höfer, Anke Hoffmann, Finbarr G. Horgan, Elisabeth Hornung, Roland Horváth, Kristoffer Hylander, Paola Isaacs-Cubides, Hiroaki Ishida, Masahiro Ishitani, Carmen T. Jacobs, Víctor J. Jaramillo, Birgit Jauker, F. Jiménez Hernández, McKenzie F. Johnson, Virat Jolli, Mats Jonsell, S. Nur Juliani, Thomas S. Jung, Vena Kapoor, Heike Kappes, Vassiliki Kati, Eric Katovai, Klaus Kellner, Michael Kessler, Kathryn R. Kirby, Andrew M. Kittle, Mairi E. Knight, Eva Knop, Florian Kohler, Matti Koivula, Annette Kolb, Mouhamadou Kone, Ádám Kőrösi, Jochen Krauss, Ajith Kumar, Raman Kumar, David J. Kurz, Alex S. Kutt, Thibault Lachat, Victoria Lantschner, Francisco Lara, Jesse R. Lasky, Steven C. Latta, William F. Laurance, Patrick Lavelle, Violette Le Féon, Gretchen LeBuhn, Jean-Philippe Légaré, Valérie Lehouck, María V. Lencinas, Pia E. Lentini, Susan G. Letcher, Qi Li, Simon A. Litchwark, Nick A. Littlewood, Yunhui Liu, Nancy Lo-Man-Hung, Carlos A. López-Quintero, Mounir Louhaichi, Gabor L. Lövei, Manuel Esteban Lucas-Borja, Victor H. Luja, Matthew S. Luskin, M Cristina MacSwiney G, Kaoru Maeto, Tibor Magura, Neil Aldrin Mallari, Louise A. Malone, Patrick K. Malonza, Jagoba Malumbres-Olarte, Salvador Mandujano, Inger E. Måren, Erika Marin-Spiotta, Charles J. Marsh, E. J. P. Marshall, Eliana Martínez, Guillermo Martínez Pastur, David Moreno Mateos, Margaret M. Mayfield, Vicente Mazimpaka, Jennifer L. McCarthy, Kyle P. McCarthy, Quinn S. McFrederick, Sean McNamara, Nagore G. Medina, Rafael Medina, Jose L. Mena, Estefania Mico, Grzegorz Mikusinski, Jeffrey C. Milder, James R. Miller, Daniel R. Miranda-Esquivel, Melinda L. Moir, Carolina L. Morales, Mary N. Muchane, Muchai Muchane, Sonja Mudri-Stojnic, A. Nur Munira, Antonio Muoñz-Alonso, B. F. Munyekenye, Robin Naidoo, A. Naithani, Michiko Nakagawa, Akihiro Nakamura, Yoshihiro Nakashima, Shoji Naoe, Guiomar Nates-Parra, Dario A. Navarrete Gutierrez, Luis Navarro-Iriarte, Paul K. Ndang'ang'a, Eike L. Neuschulz, Jacqueline T. Ngai, Violaine Nicolas, Sven G. Nilsson, Norbertas Noreika, Olivia Norfolk, Jorge Ari Noriega, David A. Norton, Nicole M. Nöske, A. Justin Nowakowski, Catherine Numa, Niall O'Dea, Patrick J. O'Farrell, William Oduro, Sabine Oertli, Caleb Ofori-Boateng, Christopher Omamoke Oke, Vicencio Oostra, Lynne M. Osgathorpe, Samuel Eduardo Otavo, Navendu V. Page, Juan Paritsis, Alejandro Parra-H, Luke Parry, Guy Pe'er, Peter B. Pearman, Nicolás Pelegrin, Raphaël Pélissier, Carlos A. Peres, Pablo L. Peri, Anna S. Persson, Theodora Petanidou, Marcell K. Peters, Rohan S. Pethiyagoda, Ben Phalan, T. Keith Philips, Finn C. Pillsbury, Jimmy Pincheira-Ulbrich, Eduardo Pineda, Joan Pino, Jaime Pizarro-Araya, A. J. Plumptre, Santiago L. Poggio, Natalia Politi, Pere Pons, Katja Poveda, Eileen F. Power, Steven J. Presley, Vânia Proença, Marino Quaranta, Carolina Quintero, Romina Rader, B. R. Ramesh, Martha P. Ramirez-Pinilla, Jai Ranganathan, Claus Rasmussen, Nicola A. Redpath-Downing, J. Leighton Reid, Yana T. Reis, José M. Rey Benayas, Juan Carlos Rey-Velasco, Chevonne Reynolds, Danilo Bandini Ribeiro, Miriam H. Richards, Barbara A. Richardson, Michael J. Richardson, Rodrigo Macip Ríos, Richard Robinson, Carolina A. Robles, Jörg Römbke, Luz Piedad Romero-Duque, Matthias Rös, Loreta Rosselli, Stephen J. Rossiter, Dana S. Roth, T'ai H. Roulston, Laurent Rousseau, André V. Rubio, Jean-Claude Ruel, Jonathan P. Sadler, Szabolcs Sáfián, Romeo A. Saldaña-Vázquez, Katerina Sam, Ulrika Samnegård, Joana Santana, Xavier Santos, Jade Savage, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Menno Schilthuizen, Ute Schmiedel, Christine B. Schmitt, Nicole L. Schon, Christof Schüepp, Katharina Schumann, Oliver Schweiger, Dawn M. Scott, Kenneth A. Scott, Jodi L. Sedlock, Steven S. Seefeldt, Ghazala Shahabuddin, Graeme Shannon, Douglas Sheil, Frederick H. Sheldon, Eyal Shochat, Stefan J. Siebert, Fernando A. B. Silva, Javier A. Simonetti, Eleanor M. Slade, Jo Smith, Allan H. Smith-Pardo, Navjot S. Sodhi, Eduardo J. Somarriba, Ramón A. Sosa, Grimaldo Soto Quiroga, Martin-Hugues St-Laurent, Brian M. Starzomski, Constanti Stefanescu, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Philip C. Stouffer, Jane C. Stout, Ayron M. Strauch, Matthew J. Struebig, Zhimin Su, Marcela Suarez-Rubio, Shinji Sugiura, Keith S. Summerville, Yik-Hei Sung, Hari Sutrisno, Jens-Christian Svenning, Tiit Teder, Caragh G. Threlfall, Anu Tiitsaar, Jacqui H. Todd, Rebecca K. Tonietto, Ignasi Torre, Béla Tóthmérész, Teja Tscharntke, Edgar C. Turner, Jason M. Tylianakis, Marcio Uehara-Prado, Nicolas Urbina-Cardona, Denis Vallan, Adam J. Vanbergen, Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, Kiril Vassilev, Hans A. F. Verboven, Maria João Verdasca, José R. Verdú, Carlos H. Vergara, Pablo M. Vergara, Jort Verhulst, Massimiliano Virgilio, Lien Van Vu, Edward M. Waite, Tony R. Walker, Hua-Feng Wang, Yanping Wang, James I. Watling, Britta Weller, Konstans Wells, Catrin Westphal, Edward D. Wiafe, Christopher D. Williams, Michael R. Willig, John C. Z. Woinarski, Jan H. D. Wolf, Volkmar Wolters, Ben A. Woodcock, Jihua Wu, Joseph M. Wunderle, Yuichi Yamaura, Satoko Yoshikura, Douglas W. Yu, Andrey S. Zaitsev, Juliane Zeidler, Fasheng Zou, Ben Collen, Rob M. Ewers, Georgina M. Mace, Drew W. Purves, Jörn P. W. Scharlemann, and Andy Purvis
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