The last version of Red List was published already more than 10 years ago but the knowledge of the flora of Slovakia has substantially improved due to large-scale mapping projects and taxonomical research. Therefore an updated fifth edition of the Red List is presented in this paper. For evaluation, we accepted IUCN categories (ER, CR, EN, VU, NT, LC, DD, NA, NE) and criteria (A-D), which were used first time in the history of Slovak Red Lists of ferns and flowering plants. In total 1 218 taxa are listed (the complete list of taxa is given in Electronic Appendix 1), which is nearly 34 % of the total number of 3 619 native taxa and archaeophytes of the flora of Slovakia. More than 80 taxa (7 %) were not confirmed in the flora (66 Regionally Extinct, 17 Probably Regionally Extinct), 155 taxa are evaluated as Critically Endangered (13 %), 171 Endangered (14 %) and 201 taxa are regarded Vulnerable (17 %). The largest group represent 347 taxa evaluated as Near Threatened (29 %), 162 taxa are assessed as Least Concern (13 %), 91 taxa are in category Data Deficient (7 %), and 8 taxa belong to categories of Not Evaluated and Not Applicable (1 %). In this Red List, 27 taxa are included as new for the flora of Slovakia and 14 taxa were rediscovered. Short history of Slovak Red lists of rare and threatened plants is also briefly mentioned.