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Baltic Journal of European Studies

Tallinn Law School, Department of Law, School of Business and Governance, Tallinn University of Technology

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Mitigating the Risk of Fraud in Documentary Letters of Credit

Hamed Alavi
Published Online: 2016-02-16 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bjes-2016-0006


Despite the fact that documentary letters of credit (LC) are meant to facilitate the process of international trade, their specific characteristics may increase the risk of fraud while being used as the method of payment in the process of international transaction. Many factors like exclusive use of documents, geographical distance, absence of efficient prosecution, the diversity of legal system at the global level and restricted application of fraud rule can be considered as reasons for LC fraud. While billions of dollars are lost annually due to fraud in the course of LC operations, such vulnerability can result in reducing the global popularity of documentary letters of credit as the main method of payment used in international trade. Meanwhile, it is worth mentioning that fraud risk management is an unexplored territory in the practice of documentary letters of credit operation. Existing research tries to fill the gap in the study on comprehensive methods for mitigating fraud risk in operations with documentary letters of credit by using risk management theory in order to answer the question of how to manage fraud risk in LC transactions? In a quest to answer the research question, the paper is divided into two parts: the first part is dedicated to preventive measures while the latter explores responsive measures of an enterprise to manage fraud risk in LC transactions.

Keywords : documentary letters of credit; fraud; international trade; risk management


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About the article

Published Online: 2016-02-16

Published in Print: 2016-02-01

Citation Information: Baltic Journal of European Studies, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 139–156, ISSN (Online) 2228-0596, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bjes-2016-0006.

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© by Hamed Alavi. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

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