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Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische Technik

Joint Journal of the German Society for Biomedical Engineering in VDE and the Austrian and Swiss Societies for Biomedical Engineering and the German Society of Biomaterials

Editor-in-Chief: Dössel, Olaf

Editorial Board: Augat, Peter / Habibović, Pamela / Haueisen, Jens / Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm / Jockenhoevel, Stefan / Knaup-Gregori, Petra / Lenarz, Thomas / Leonhardt, Steffen / Plank, Gernot / Radermacher, Klaus M. / Schkommodau, Erik / Stieglitz, Thomas / Boenick, Ulrich / Jaramaz, Branislav / Kraft, Marc / Lenthe, Harry / Lo, Benny / Mainardi, Luca / Micera, Silvestro / Penzel, Thomas / Robitzki, Andrea A. / Schaeffter, Tobias / Snedeker, Jess G. / Sörnmo, Leif / Sugano, Nobuhiko / Werner, Jürgen /

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.096
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.492

CiteScore 2017: 0.48

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.202
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.356

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Volume 56, Issue 1


Volume 57 (2012)

Amplifier design for EMG recording from stimulation electrodes during functional electrical stimulation leg cycling ergometry

Raafat Shalaby / Thomas Schauer / Wolfgang Liedecke / Jörg Raisch
  • Control Systems Group, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany
  • Systems and Control Theory Group, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Magdeburg, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2010-12-17 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmt.2010.055


Functional electrical stimulation leg cycle ergometry (FES-LCE), which is often used as exercise for people with spinal cord injury (SCI), has recently been applied in the motor rehabilitation of stroke patients. Recently completed studies show controversial results, but with a tendency to positive training effects. Current technology is identical to that used in FES-LCE for SCI, whereas the pathology of stroke differs strongly. Most stroke patients with hemiparesis are able to drive an ergometer independently. Depending on the degree of spasticity, the paretic leg will partially support or hinder movements. Electrical stimulation increases muscle force and endurance and both are prerequisites for restoring gait. However, the effect of FES-LCE on improving impaired motor coordination is unclear. To measure motor coordination during FES-LCE, an EMG-amplifier design has been investigated which suppresses stimulation artifacts and allows detection of volitional or reflex induced muscle activity. Direct measurement of EMG from stimulation electrodes between stimulation pulses is an important asset of this amplifier. Photo-MOS switches in front of the preamplifier are utilized to achieve this. The technology presented here can be used to monitor the effects of FES-LCE to adapt the stimulation strategy or to realize EMG-biofeedback training.

Keywords: artifact suppression; cycling; electromyography; functional electrical stimulation; stimulation electrodes; stroke rehabilitation

About the article

Corresponding author: Thomas Schauer, Control Systems Group, Technische Universität Berlin, Einsteinufer 17, 10587 Berlin, Germany

Received: 2010-03-04

Accepted: 2010-11-03

Published Online: 2010-12-17

Published Online: 2010-12-17

Published in Print: 2011-02-01

Citation Information: Biomedizinische Technik/Biomedical Engineering, Volume 56, Issue 1, Pages 23–33, ISSN (Online) 1862-278X, ISSN (Print) 0013-5585, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmt.2010.055.

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