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Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische Technik

Joint Journal of the German Society for Biomedical Engineering in VDE and the Austrian and Swiss Societies for Biomedical Engineering and the German Society of Biomaterials

Editor-in-Chief: Dössel, Olaf

Editorial Board: Augat, Peter / Habibović, Pamela / Haueisen, Jens / Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm / Jockenhoevel, Stefan / Knaup-Gregori, Petra / Lenarz, Thomas / Leonhardt, Steffen / Plank, Gernot / Radermacher, Klaus M. / Schkommodau, Erik / Stieglitz, Thomas / Boenick, Ulrich / Jaramaz, Branislav / Kraft, Marc / Lenthe, Harry / Lo, Benny / Mainardi, Luca / Micera, Silvestro / Penzel, Thomas / Robitzki, Andrea A. / Schaeffter, Tobias / Snedeker, Jess G. / Sörnmo, Leif / Sugano, Nobuhiko / Werner, Jürgen /


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.096
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.492

CiteScore 2017: 0.48

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.202
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.356

Online
ISSN
1862-278X
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Volume 57, Issue 3

Issues

Volume 57 (2012)

Eye safety for scanning laser projection systems

Annette Frederiksen / Reinhold Fieß / Wilhelm Stork
  • Institut für Technik der Informationsverarbeitung, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Siegwart Bogatscher
  • Institut für Technik der Informationsverarbeitung, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Nico Heußner
  • Institut für Technik der Informationsverarbeitung, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2012-05-31 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmt-2011-0088

Abstract

In the growing field of pico-projectors, laser-based scanning systems may be advantageous over DLP- or LCoS-based imagers due to their potential for miniaturization, enhanced optical efficiency and cost reduction. The high energy density of a combined laser beam can, however, be hazardous to the human eye. Laser projection systems must therefore be identified with the laser class, depending on their maximum optical output power. This power limits the brightness of the displayed image, which is of particular interest for mobile applications. Various approaches to classifying laser devices by their wavelength and output power are described within the standards for laser safety. It is found that actual safety regulations cannot be directly applied to scanning systems. A detailed analysis of the optical conditions in terms of a two-dimensional extended light source is appropriate for the consideration of laser scanner devices. In this article, alternative ways of applying laser standards for scanning systems are discussed. The dependencies of maximum luminous flux from scanning system parameters are reviewed. It is shown that the evaluation of retinal light exposure in terms of existing laser regulations leads to an overestimation of the hazardous potential. Advanced investigations are proposed to support the definition of suitable criteria for the classification of laser scanning projectors.

Keywords: laser safety standard; laser scanner; pico-projector

About the article

Corresponding author: Annette Frederiksen, Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Research (CR/ARE2), Postfach 10 60 50, 70049 Stuttgart, Germany Phone: +49 711 811 32292 Fax: +49 711 811 5182694


Received: 2012-04-01

Accepted: 2012-04-24

Published Online: 2012-05-31

Published in Print: 2012-06-01


Citation Information: Biomedizinische Technik/Biomedical Engineering, Volume 57, Issue 3, Pages 175–184, ISSN (Online) 1862-278X, ISSN (Print) 0013-5585, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmt-2011-0088.

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