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Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische Technik

Joint Journal of the German Society for Biomedical Engineering in VDE and the Austrian and Swiss Societies for Biomedical Engineering and the German Society of Biomaterials

Editor-in-Chief: Dössel, Olaf

Editorial Board: Augat, Peter / Habibović, Pamela / Haueisen, Jens / Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm / Jockenhoevel, Stefan / Knaup-Gregori, Petra / Lenarz, Thomas / Leonhardt, Steffen / Plank, Gernot / Radermacher, Klaus M. / Schkommodau, Erik / Stieglitz, Thomas / Boenick, Ulrich / Jaramaz, Branislav / Kraft, Marc / Lenthe, Harry / Lo, Benny / Mainardi, Luca / Micera, Silvestro / Penzel, Thomas / Robitzki, Andrea A. / Schaeffter, Tobias / Snedeker, Jess G. / Sörnmo, Leif / Sugano, Nobuhiko / Werner, Jürgen /

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Volume 58, Issue 6


Volume 57 (2012)

Comparison of commercial iron oxide-based MRI contrast agents with synthesized high-performance MPI tracers

Kerstin Lüdtke-Buzug / Julian Haegele
  • Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Sven Biederer / Timo F. Sattel / Marlitt Erbe / Robert L. Duschka
  • Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Jörg Barkhausen
  • Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Florian M. Vogt
  • Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2013-06-20 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmt-2012-0059


Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) recently emerged as a new tomographic imaging method directly visualizing the amount and location of superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs) with high spatial resolution. To fully exploit the imaging performance of MPI, specific requirements are demanded on the SPIOs. Most important, a sufficiently high number of detectable harmonics of the receive signal spectrum is required. In this study, an assessment of commercial iron oxide-based MRI contrast agents is carried out, and the result is compared with that of a new self-synthesized high-performance MPI tracer. The decay of the harmonics is measured with a magnetic particle spectrometer (MPS). For the self-synthesized carboxymethyldextran-coated SPIO, it can be demonstrated that despite a small iron core diameter, the particle performance is as good as in Resovist, the best-performing commercial SPIO today. However, the self-synthesized particles show the lowest iron concentration compared with Resovist, Sinerem, and Endorem. As the iron dose will be an important issue in human MPI, the synthesis technique and the separation chain for self-synthesis will be pursued for further improvements. In evaluations carried out with MPS, it can be shown in this work that the quality of the self-synthesized nanoparticles outperforms the three commercial tracer materials when the decay of harmonics is normalized by the iron concentration. The results of this work emphasize the importance of producing highly uniform and monodisperse superparamagnetic particles contributing to lower application of tracer concentration, better sensitivity, or a higher spatial resolution.

Keywords: iron oxide; magnetic particle imaging; magnetic particle spectroscopy; nanoparticles; SPIO


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About the article

Corresponding author: Kerstin Lüdtke-Buzug, Institute of Medical Engineering, University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, Lübeck 23562, Germany, E-mail:

Received: 2012-12-04

Accepted: 2013-05-28

Published Online: 2013-06-20

Published in Print: 2013-12-01

Citation Information: Biomedizinische Technik/Biomedical Engineering, Volume 58, Issue 6, Pages 527–533, ISSN (Online) 1862-278X, ISSN (Print) 0013-5585, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmt-2012-0059.

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